81 – Israel Under Roman Rule – 27 B.C. To 476 A.D.

Anti-Semitism: Hitler’s Rise to Power

First Newsreel Pictures Of The Liberation Of The Nazi Death Camps

Women & Children in the holocaust

Yes! There was a holocaust! Six million Jews murdered!


The Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. Holocaust is a word of Greek origin meaning “sacrifice by fire.” The Nazis, who came to power in Germany in January 1933, believed that Germans were “racially superior” and that the Jews, deemed “inferior,” were an alien threat to the so-called German racial community.

Hatikva at Bergen-Belsen

Any non-Jew would normally wonder what it is that keeps the emotional drive of Jews so strong, especially after they have viewed the preceding videos of the Jews who were so brutally treated during the time of the Holocaust. Any normal person should also wonder how one group of people could be so brutal to another group of people. Many people have denied the fact of the Holocaust; but, the videos of this article don’t lie. Consider the following reports of other articles that discuss how Jews were treated during their time of dominance by the Roman World Empire.

Israel In The Roman Empire

In order for anyone to have a clear understanding of the culture of Israel, and the Jewish people, it is an imperative that the religious aspects of the Jews be considered. In order for a news reporting agency to properly report on the nation of Israel, and Jews around the world, there must be an honest sensitivity to things that are important to Jews, and must be shown in that reporting. In order for businesses to effectively incorporate Jewish businesses into their overall corporate scheme, the sensitivities and beliefs of Jews and Israel must be taken into account. Before this post is read it is advised that the prior posts be read, in their order of being published:

1. Israel, A Look Within, From Without
2. Israel 931-586 BC
3. Israel 586-445 BC
4. Israel 444 BC To The Roman Empire

Consider the following breakdowns of Jewish history.


The history of the Jews in the Roman Empire traces the interaction of Jews and Romans during the period of the Roman Empire (27 BC – AD 476). Their cultures began to overlap in the centuries just before the Christian Era. Jews, as part of the Jewish diaspora, migrated to Rome and Roman Europe from the Land of Israel, Asia Minor, Babylon and Alexandria in response to economic hardship and incessant warfare over the land of Israel between the Ptolemaic and Seleucid empires. In Rome, Jewish communities enjoyed privileges and thrived economically, becoming a significant part of the Empire’s population (perhaps as much as ten percent).

The Roman general Pompey in his eastern campaign established the Roman province of Syria in 64 BC and conquered Jerusalem in 63 BC. Julius Caesar conquered Alexandria c. 47 BC and defeated Pompey in 45 BC. Under Julius Caesar, Judaism was officially recognised as a legal religion, a policy followed by the first Roman emperor, Augustus. Herod the Great was designated ‘King of the Jews’ by the Roman Senate in c. 40 BC. The Roman province of Egypt was established in 30 BC, and Judea proper, Samaria and Idumea (biblical Edom) were converted to the Roman province of Iudaea in 6 AD. Jewish-Roman tensions resulted in several Jewish–Roman wars, 66-135 AD, which resulted in the destruction of Jerusalem and the Second Temple and institution of the Jewish Tax in 70 and Hadrian’s attempt to create a new Roman colony named Aelia Capitolina c. 130.

Around this time, Christianity developed from Second Temple Judaism. In 313, Constantine and Licinius issued the Edict of Milan giving official recognition to Christianity as a legal religion. Constantine the Great moved the Roman capital from Rome to Constantinople (‘New Rome’) c. 330, sometimes considered the start of the Byzantine Empire, and with the Edict of Thessalonica in 380, Christianity became the state church of the Roman Empire. The Christian emperors persecuted their Jewish subjects and restricted their rights.


To the Romans, the Greek civilization was a source of inspiration, and as Athens prospered under the Emperor Hadrian, Rome prospered from the ideas of the ancient Athenians.

Hadrians Arch and the Temple of Olympia Zeus. In 168 BC the Romans defeat the Macedonians in the battle of Pydna. In 146 BC and 86 BC the Romans seize rebellious Corinth, killing all the men, selling the women into slavery and destroying the city as an example. When Athens joins King Mithridates in another rebellion against the Romans in Asia Minor they invade the city, destroy the walls and leave with the most valuable sculptures. When Octavion becomes emperor with his victory over Mark Antony and Cleopatra (of the line of Greek Ptolemaic Pharaohs) the period of peace which follows is known as Pax-Romana, lasting 300 years. It is the longest period of peace in the history of Greece


History of Israel

Roman Empire

The Roman Empire was an outgrowth of the ancient Roman Republic, which had roots back as far as 500 BCE. In the first century BCE, Julius Caesar, Pompey, and Crassus formed the First Triumvirate in an attempt to gain control of the Republic. Caesar emerged as the victor, but was later assassinated. However, his chosen heir, Octavian, formed part of the Second Triumvirate, and in 31 BCE, became the undisputed ruler. Roman emperors continued to expand and conquer more territory, until the Romans ruled much of the known world. During the Pax Romana (Roman Peace), in the 1st and 2nd centuries AD, a period of relative peace, the Roman economy thrived and trade routes were established. The Romans built huge, architecturally impressive structures, like the Coliseum, and made incredible advances in infrastructure, building aqueducts, sewer systems, and the first highway system.

The Romans, in the 1st century BC, conquered much of the known world, ending the reign of the Greeks, as well as the reign of the Hasmonean dynasty in Israel. Their reign lasted until 476, when the Eastern Roman Empire, or the Byzantine Empire, gained control.

At first, the Romans granted the Jewish people some authority over their internal affairs; however, frequent rebellions by the Jews led the Romans to stamp out that autonomy. Around 40 BC, the Roman Senate proclaimed Herod the Great as “King of the Jews,” and he was appointed the governor of Judea. He married a Hasmonean princess in order to gain the favor of the Jews in the region and shore up support for his reign. Herod also embarked on a program to reconstruct the Temple, which suffered damage from invasions over the years. He returned the Temple to its former glory, as well as enclosing the Tomb of the Patriarchs and building the fortress at Masada, but never received full Jewish support.

After Herod’s death in 4 BC, the Romans took full control of Jerusalem. The Jewish revolts began in earnest, culminating in the rebellion in 66 AD, which led the eventual destruction of the Temple in 70 AD. The Jewish people had been able to fend off Roman advances for a few years, but were never a true match for the stronger and better-equipped Roman army, under the Emperor Titus.

After the destruction of the Temple and Jerusalem, the Jewish people were devastated. Hundreds of thousands were killed by the Romans, exiled, or sold into slavery. The image of the Romans triumphantly carrying off the sacred vessels from the Temple is immortalized on the famous Arch of Titus. Hope stirred again briefly during the reign of Bar Kokhba, a messianic figure and powerful military leader, who managed to reclaim Jerusalem in 132 AD. His victory, though, was short-lived; in 135 AD, his rebellion was crushed, the remaining Jews exiled, and Jerusalem was renamed Aelia Capitolina.

However, this did not end Jewish presence in Israel. The north, specifically Tiberias, became a center of Jewish learning and Torah study.


A.D. 70 – Rome’s Destruction Of Jerusalem

During the long siege a terrible famine raged in the city and the bodies of the inhabitants were literally stacked like cordwood in the streets. The toll of Jewish suffering was horrible but they would not surrender the city. Again and again they attempted to trick the Romans through guile and perfidy. When at last the walls were breached Titus tried to preserve the Temple by giving orders to his soldiers not to destroy or burn it. But the anger of the soldiers against the Jews was so intense that, maddened by the resistance they encountered, they disobeyed the order of their general and set fire to the Temple. There were great quantities of gold and silver there which had been placed in the Temple for safekeeping. This melted and ran down between the rocks and into the cracks of the stones. When the soldiers captured the Temple area, in their greed to obtain this gold and silver they took long bars and pried apart the massive stones.

A Second Exile for Israel

When the Temple was destroyed in A.D. 70 the period of the second exile began. The Jewish people were soon to be scattered throughout the earth. For the next 1900 years the Jews would have no authority in the land God gave to Abraham, Isaac, and Jacob. However during most of the period of this Second Exile there have always been some Jews living in Jerusalem. Although most of the nation was in exile from their land, the Jews did not forget Jerusalem or the Temple Mount. Their daily prayer was for the rebuilding of the Temple in Jerusalem.

For the next two thousand years, the Temple Mount would lack any Jewish presence. The destruction of the Temple in A.D. 70 caused the beginning of the scattering of the Jews throughout the world. During this period, the Temple Mount was for the most part neglected and profaned. Though this time constituted a period of neglect, some significant events concerning Jerusalem and the Temple Mount did occur. More information on this time period of Temple Mount history is given in Tuvia Sagiv’s writings.

Let’s go back to the opening question of consideration of this article.

“What is it that keeps the emotional drive of Jews so strong?”

My belief is that it is because Jews hold deeply to a promise that is written in a Jewish scripture.

Deuteronomy 7:6 Contemporary English Version (CEV)

The Lord’s Chosen People

Moses said:

6 Israel, you are the chosen people of the Lord your God. There are many nations on this earth, but He chose only Israel to be His very own.

Any religious Jew understands that the Jews were chosen by God to bring the Messiah into the world. Such Jews also believe that during the future Kingdom of God, Jews will have a special role of service during that thousand year period of time. Beyond the Kingdom age, religious Jews look to, new heavens, a new earth and a new Jerusalem, where they will also have a place of God-ordained prominence. Many Christians hold to these same beliefs.

Hear O’ Israel

Per the Jewish prophet, Isaiah, the nation of Israel would be born in one day. The prophecy was made in 698 B.C. The day that the prophecy was fulfilled was May 14, 1948.

Isaiah 66:8 New American Standard Bible (NASB)

8 “Who has heard such a thing? Who has seen such things?
Can a land be born in one day?
Can a nation be brought forth all at once?
As soon as Zion travailed, she also brought forth her sons.


Many Jews hold to the promise of Genesis 15:18-21, which describes the land that the Jews would inherit, and is rightfully theirs today in the land that is called Israel. Many Christians also hold to that same promise that was made to the Jews in approximately 1913 B.C., as was written by Moses.

Genesis 15:18-21 Complete Jewish Bible (CJB)

18 That day Adonai made a covenant with Avram: “I have given this land to your descendants — from the Vadi of Egypt to the great river, the Euphrates River — 19 the territory of the Keni, the K’nizi, the Kadmoni, 20 the Hitti, the P’rizi, the Refa’im, 21 the Emori, the Kena‘ani, the Girgashi and the Y’vusi.”

Comment made by Dr. James MacArthur

15:18–21 river of Egypt to the…Euphrates. Scripture records both general (Ex. 23:31; Num. 13:21; Deut. 11:24; 1 Kin. 8:65; 2 Kin. 14:25; Is. 27:12) and specific (Num. 34:1–12; Josh. 15:1, 2; Ezek. 47:15–20; 48:1, 28) descriptions of the Promised Land, centering on the ancient land of Canaan. Such precise geographic demarcation will not allow for any redefinitions which would emasculate God’s promise of its specificity. The river of Egypt was most probably what became known as the Wadi El Arish, the southern border of Judah. Kenites…Jebusites. The various peoples who inhabited the land are named. Such precise detailing of the nations in the land of Canaan attests again to the specificity of the Promised Land in God’s promises.

Jews do not believe that their land should be used as a political bargaining chip. They do not believe that the land that was given to them by God should be reduced, “in cookie cutter fashion,” and parceled out to any other nation or group of people.

Two terms have entered the situation that affects the nation of Israel.

ISIS (The Islamic State of Iraq and Syria) is a terrorist group.


The Levant is a geographic region that covers and extends in all directions beyond the borders of Israel.


The term Levant is employed to refer to peoples, states, or parts of states in the region, namely:

Palestinian Territories

Soon after ISIS made is presence known to the world, most people began to use the name, “ISIS,” to relate to ISIS. But soon, thereafter, U.S. President Obama began to refer to ISIS as “ISIL,” which caused that group to be known as “The Islamic Sate of Iraq and the Levant.” Such recognition of “ISIS,” as “ISIL,” inflated its importance in the world, to include its territorial overshadowing of the nation of Israel.

Ever since the death of King Solomon in 931 B.C., Jews have come under the domination of the following world empires: Assyria, Babylon, Medo-Persia, Greek and Rome. At present time, Israel is located within the geographic territory of the Old Roman Empire. Oppression never ceases to come upon the Jews. For a confirmation of the previous sentence, “check the daily news.”


69 – Israel – 444 BC To The Roman Empire

Ship Full of Holocaust Survivors Sing Hatikva in 1945

Watching the following video made me cry.

March of the Living – Tribute to Liberators

Soldiers, Russia, British and American, are seen as they free Jews who had been enslaved, tortured and starved by Hitler’s Nazis. Yes! There was a holocaust. Some people deny that act of inhumanity, but, it happened.

Israel 444 BC To The Roman Empire

In order for anyone to have a clear understanding of the culture of Israel, and the Jewish people, it is an imperative that the religious aspects of such a people be considered. Before this post is read, it is advised that the prior posts be read, in their order of being published:

1. Israel, A Look Within, From Without
2. Israel 931-586 BC
3. Israel 586-445 BC

As has been mentioned in this study of Israel, the Jews have always had a great respect for their prophets, from whom “God’s chosen people” (per, Deuteronomy 7:6), believed that they received revelation from God. The prophets were identified as being major or minor prophets. The only difference between the two groups was the length of their writings. The major prophets (Isaiah, Jeremiah, Ezekiel and Daniel) had no greater significance than did the minor prophets (Hosea, Joel, Amos, Obadiah, Jonah, Micah, Nahum, Habakkuk, Zephaniah, Haggai, Zechariah, Malachi). The prophets wrote prior to the deportation of the Jews, during the exile of the Jews, and after the return of the Jews to Jerusalem and surrounding Judah. The times of the writings of the prophets occurred from approximately 850 B.C. until approximately 400 BC.

After the return of the Jews to Judah and Jerusalem, three other important books were written that Jews hold in high regard. Those books are Ezra, Nehemiah and Esther.

Ezra. The Book of Ezra is devoted to events occurring in the land of Israel at the time of the return of Jews, from the Babylonian captivity and subsequent years, covering a period of approximately one century, beginning in 538 BC. The Persian King, Cyrus, issued an edict in that year., for the return of the exiled Jews to Judah and Jerusalem. The temple, which had been destroyed by the Babylonians in 586 BC, began being rebuilt in 535 BC, and was completed in 515 BC. Ezra was a Jewish scribe and priest; he was a descendant of Aaron, and was well-versed in the Law of Moses. He was commissioned by King Artaxerxes of Persia to return to Jerusalem and restore the Law for the Jewish people (Ezra 7:1-16). Ezra returned to Jerusalem in 458 BC. The time of writing was from about 457 to 444 BC.

Nehemiah. The Book of Nehemiah was likely written between 420 and 400 B.C. It continues the story of Israel’s return from the Babylonian captivity, and the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem, which were also destroyed in 586 BC by Nebuchadnezzar. Nehemiah was the Jew who was appointed as the Governor of Judah, in 444 BC. He was appointed Governor by the Persian King Artaxerxes, and was serving as the King’s cupbearer (he tasted the King’s food to make sure that it was not poisoned). Nehemiah went to Jerusalem in 444 BC, and completed the rebuilding of the walls of the city in 443 BC.

Esther. The events of this book took place in Persia, which is current day Iran. Its author is anonymous, however, some believe Mordecai, (Esther’s cousin and guardian), wrote it. It was written approximately 470 BC in Persia. The key personalities are Esther, Mordecai, King Ahasuerus (or Xerxes), and Haman. The book is a post-exile story about Jews who stayed behind, after most returned to Jerusalem after captivity. Babylon was conquered by Persia, and Esther miraculously became the queen of the land. She was a brave young woman who saved her people from being exterminated. She became the queen of Persia around 475 BC, after winning a beauty contest. Esther’s cousin, Mordecai, saved the king’s life once, when two men in the palace tried to attack him (see Esther 2:21-23). He also played a big part in helping Esther stand up for her people. Haman is the villain of the story. He came up with a plan to kill every Jew in Persia. He built a tower, which he was going to use to hang Mordecai. But, Haman got the justice that he deserved; he was hung from his own tower (see Esther 7:9-10). After helping to save his people, Mordecai was promoted to second in rank to only the King (see Esther 10:2-3). As a Jewish maiden who had become the wife of the powerful king, Esther reached a crossroads of faith. Dare she stand up for the Lord and His chosen people? Or would she just blend into society as Persian royalty?

From 722 BC, when the northern ten tribes of Israel were taken captive by Assyria, until 586 BC, when the southern two tribes were taken captive by Babylon, until 539 BC, when Babylon was defeated by Medo-Persia, the Jews were under the control of world empires. Greece defeated the Persians in about 330 BC, and became the next world empire; they controlled and influenced the Jews in the culture of the Greeks until Rome became the next word empire. Jews became the writers of the New Testament of the Bible (minus Luke, a gentile), and wrote their scriptures in Greek, to include some Aramaic verses. While in exile, many Jews lost their knowledge of their native Hebrew language. Prior to their deportation in 586 BC, some Jews were also speaking in Aramaic, as recorded in 2 Kings 18:26 (713 BC) and Isaiah 36:11 (710 BC).

Consider the oppression of the Jews while they were under the rule of the Greek Empire. The temple that had been rebuilt in 515 BC was desecrated by the Greeks in 167 BC. That event is recorded in the Old Testament book of Daniel, in Chapter eleven, verse 31. A second account is provided by a Jew, by the name of Matthew, in the New Testament book of Matthew, Chapter 24, verse 15. Most Jews do not accept the writings of Matthew, from a spiritual standpoint. However, the facts of Matthew are very consistent with the account of Daniel.

The following notes come from the writings of Dr. John MacArthur, as he discusses Daniel, Chapter, Verse 31, and Matthew, Chapter 24, Verse 15.

11:31 DEFILE THE SANCTUARY. Antiochus’ soldiers, no doubt working with apostate Jews, guarded the temple, halting all worship, while others attacked the city on the Sabbath, slaughtering men, women and children. Soldiers desecrated Israel’s temple, banned circumcision and daily sacrifices (1 Macc. 1:44–54), and sacrificed a pig on the altar. The Syrians on Chislev (Dec. 15, 167 B.C.), even imposed an idol statue, in honor of the Olympian god Zeus, into the temple. Jews called it “the abomination that causes desolation,” i.e., emptying or ruining for Jewish worship. ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION. Antiochus’ soldiers profaned God’s temple by spreading sow’s broth on the altar and banning daily sacrifices (cf. 8:14 and see note there) as described in 1 Macc. 1:44–54. Both Daniel and Christ said this atrocity was only a preview of the abomination that would happen later, under the final Antichrist (9:27; Matt. 24:15).

24:15 ABOMINATION OF DESOLATION. See notes on Daniel 9:27; 11:31. This phrase originally referred to the desecration of the temple by Antiochus Epiphanes, King of Syria, in the second century B.C. Antiochus invaded Jerusalem in 168 B.C., made the altar into a shrine to Zeus, and even sacrificed pigs on it. However, Christ clearly was looking toward a yet-future “abomination of desolation.” Some suggest that this prophecy was fulfilled in A.D. 70, when Titus invaded Jerusalem and destroyed the temple (see note on v. 2). However, the Apostle Paul saw a still-future fulfillment (2 Thess. 2:3, 4), as did John (Rev. 13:14, 15)—when the Antichrist sets up an image in the temple during the future tribulation. Christ’s words here, therefore, look beyond the events of A.D., 70 to a time of even greater global cataclysm that will immediately precede His second coming to earth (cf. vv. 29–31).

Antiochus Epiphanes was a Greek king of the Seleucid Empire who reigned over Syria from 175 BC until 164 BC. He is famous for his brutal persecution of the Jews. Consider the following article that discusses the oppression of the Greeks and Syrians on Israel. The Maccbees were Jews. Consider the comment on Chanukah, also spelled Hanukkah.


333 BC-143 BC – Greek Rule

From the year 180 BC until 161 BC the Maccabees rebelled against the Syrian king Antiochus IV, who persecuted the Jews. He launched a campaign to crush Judaism, and in 167 BC he sacked the Temple. At the end of the period, after the rebels had conquered Judah and Jerusalem, the Temple was re-inaugurated. The Jewish holiday of Chanukah, also spelled Hanukkah, is based on these historic events.

In 168 BC, Antiochus, being defeated in his plans against Egypt, turned his anger against Palestine, and undertook the extermination of the Jewish religion and the complete Hellenizing of Judea. The walls of Jerusalem were thrown down, but the old city of David was fortified and occupied by a Syrian garrison. The observance of Jewish rites, the Sabbath, and circumcision, was prohibited. Those who resisted were put to death. In December 168, at the great altar of burnt offering in the temple of Jerusalem, a pagan altar was built, and on the 25th Chisleu sacrifices were offered on it.

Even after having suffered greatly from other kingdoms and nations, Jews still hold strongly to the promise that was given to them by Moses in 1451 BC, in the book of Deuteronomy. Consider the following verses:

Devarim 7:6 Orthodox Jewish Bible (OJB)

6 For thou art an Am Kodesh unto Hashem Eloheicha; Hashem Eloheicha hath chosen thee to be an Am Segullah (Treasured People) unto Himself, above all people that are upon the face of ha’adamah.

Deuteronomy 7:6 Complete Jewish Bible (CJB)

6 For you are a people set apart as holy for Adonai your God. Adonai your God has chosen you out of all the peoples on the face of the earth to be his own unique treasure.

Deuteronomy 7:6 New Living Translation (NLT)

6 For you are a holy people, who belong to the Lord your God. Of all the people on earth, the Lord your God has chosen you to be his own special treasure.

Jews also hold to the writings of Moses, that they believe to be given to him by God, and date back to 2126 BC. Consider the following verses from the Book of Genesis:

Bereshis 12:3 Orthodox Jewish Bible (OJB)

3 And I will bless the one blessing you, and curse him that curses you; and kol mishpochot haadamah shall be blessed through you.[T.N. There is a brocha in this verse that many do not know but that every true follower of Moshiach should know.]

Genesis 12:3 Complete Jewish Bible (CJB)

3 I will bless those who bless you, but I will curse anyone who curses you; and by you all the families of the earth will be blessed.

Genesis 12:3 New Living Translation (NLT)

3 I will bless those who bless you and curse those who treat you with contempt. All the families on earth will be blessed through you.”

Jews believe that the promises of Genesis 12:3 flow to them from Abraham (the object of this verse, Gen 12:1-2), through the bloodline of his son, Isaac, and his grandson, Jacob, who become known as Israel, per Genesis 32:28. The Jews also believe that by being the chosen people of God, He will use their bloodline to bring the promised Messiah into the world (Isaiah 7:14; 9:7). Jews also believe that they will inherit a place of key significance during the, “yet future,” Kingdom of God (Zephaniah 3:8).

Consider the words, “Judah” and “Judea.”

Prior to the exile of Jews from Jerusalem, the tribes of Judah and Benjamin made up the southern kingdom of Judah.

After the Captivity the name, Judea, was applied to the whole of the country west of the Jordan (Haggai 1:1, 14; 2:2). But under the Romans, in the time of Christ, it denoted the southernmost of the three divisions of Palestine (Matthew 2:1, 5; 3:1; 4:25), although it was also sometimes used for Palestine generally (Acts 28:21).
The province of Judea, as distinguished from Galilee and Samaria, included the territories of the tribes of Judah, Benjamin, Dan, Simeon, and part of Ephraim. Under the Romans it was a part of the province of Syria, and was governed by a procurator.

Israel – 586 B.C.- 445 B.C.

Av Ha’rachamim/Padre de Compasión/Yaakov Shwekey/Español

This article has been a very difficult one for me to compose and publish. As I watched the different videos that showed the inhumanity of Germany and the Nazis toward the Jews, it affected me in a way that I had not expected. My question to myself was, how could a “so-called” Christian nation be so terrible to a group of people, the Jews, solely because of the ethnicity of the Jews? I watched videos on the trials and hangings of German soldiers. Some of the soldiers were young men, and some were old men; it made no sense to me.

My father knew a man who was in Berlin during the 1930s. He mentioned how Hitler had such a hypnotizing effect on the people of Germany who went to hear “the Fuhrer” speak. I remember a program that said that as Hitler was rising to his political fame, that he won one of those elections by one vote. Can anyone imagine how much different the world would be today if that one winning vote had been changed to Hitler’s opposing candidate?

In the 1920s, Mussolini’s “black shirts” helped to push him to political power in Italy. At the same time, Hitler’s “brown shirts” helped him in his rise to power in Germany. I am very concerned about the “black hoodies” that are seen so often in media news reports in America today.

The Great Depression of America which began in 1929 had a world-wide effect. The Jews of Germany had fared better financially than had most German citizens. Because of the prosperity of the Jews, and for other reasons of ethnic prejudice, they were targeted by the Nazis for extermination, which led to the murders of more than six million Jewish men, women and children. Yes! The Holocaust was a real event.

In order for anyone to have a proper understanding of the people of Israel, and Jews throughout the world, it is very important to understand that the Jews are a religious people. Without that understanding, there can be no intimate knowledge of “God’s chosen people.” Jews have a deep respect for parents, and their elders. Young Jews are careful to not show a lack of proper respect for other Jews, and have a deep appreciation for parents and elders. Jews have a great respect for God’s Word. They have a belief that, from Moses through the last prophet, God gave them the ways of life and culture that were designed to make them a holy and righteous people.

History shows that Jews have fared well in life. The “Israelites” have always believed that they are “God’s chosen people” (Deuteronomy 7:6), with such a promise for the coming of the Messiah through the Jewish bloodline, and for a special place of blessing for Jews during the eternal Kingdom of God. They also believe that by being the chosen people of God, there will be harsh punishment for people who treat the Jews poorly (Zechariah 2:8).

Jews are very particular in their keeping of the “feasts of the Lord.” They believe that they are to keep the “feasts of God,” forever (Leviticus 23:31, 37, 41) (i.e., Passover, Feast of Unleavened Bread, etc.)

Jews believe in the authority of the prophet, priest and King. The prophet represents God to the Jews. The priest represents the Jews to God. The King is God, and is over all of His creation.

There were three Jews who were prophets of God to Israel during the time that the Jews were in exile in Babylon.

Jeremiah – He was a prophet to Jews in Judea and in all dispersed lands. He lived from 640-570 B.C.

Ezekiel – He was a prophet to Jews captive in Babylon, and in all dispersed lands. He lived from 623-570 B.C.

Daniel – He was a prophet to Jews captive in Babylon, and in all dispersed lands. He lived from 620-533 B.C.

Going back to 722 B.C., Shalmanezer, King of Assyria, captured Samaria (the northern ten tribes of Israel) and carried Israel away into exile to Assyria (2 Kings 17:1-6). The Jews of Jerusalem/Judah were taken into exile to Babylon, beginning in 597 until 586 B.C. Their return to Jerusalem began in 536 B.C, when King Cyrus of Persia issued an edict, allowing the return of the Jews to Jerusalem. The return was in stages of events until 445 B.C., after the temple had been rebuilt (515 B.C.), and after Nehemiah had completed the rebuilding of the walls of Jerusalem, that had been destroyed by Nebuchadnezzar in 586 B.C. Jeremiah wrote in 607 B.C., that the time was soon coming for the Jews to spend 70 years of captivity in Babylon (Jeremiah 25:11). He also wrote of the same captivity in 599 BC. (Jeremiah 29:10). In 538 B.C., Daniel discovered those writings of Jeremiah (Daniel 9:2).

From 722 B.C., until 445 B.C., the Jews were subservient to other world empires. Those powers were Egypt, Assyria, Babylon and Medo-Persia. Greece and Rome would follow.

Please allow me to provide a note concerning dates in this article. A lot of time was spent trying to be as correct as possible for the dates of the events that are shown. But, I have found that not all historians agree on all dates. However, the varying dates are close enough for an accurate story to be told. One source states that, beginning in 721 B.C., Assyria began moving Gentiles into the vacated lands of Northern Israel.

Israel 931- 586 B.C.

Click onto any highlighted word to see the videos and text on the blog.

Hatikva- Israeli national anthem

Look Back: Israel 1446 B.C. to 931 B.C.

This introduction reviews the years of Israel that go back to the year of 1446 B.C. The Israelites had been living under bondage in Egypt for more than 400 years. They were in the desert, after having fled Egypt. The Jews were being led by Moses, who is considered by Jews to be a prophet of God to Israel. The account of the exodus of Israel from Egypt is provided in the following link:

Moses died in the year of 1406 B.C. His successor was Joshua, who led the Israelites across the Jordan River into the land of Canaan in the year of 1406 B.C. The story of Joshua’s leadership of the Israelites is provided in the following link: http://www.chabad.org/library/article_cdo/aid/111849/jewish/Joshua.htm

The history of the Israelites, from their entry into Canaan, until their final exile in 586 B.C., is provided in the following link:

The Israelites believed that they were “God’s chosen people;” that God spoke those words to Moses; that they were written by Moses in the Jewish writings (Deuteronomy 7:6 of the Tanakh); and were spoken by Moses to the Israelites while they were in the wilderness between Egypt and Canaan. See the following link for the words of Deuteronomy 7:6 of: The Book of D’varim (Deuteronomy): Chapter 7, of the Torah – Pentateuch: of the Tanakh. The Christian Bible also contains the book of Deuteronomy.


The Jews believed, and still believe, that they were chosen by God to bring the Messiah into the world, hence, “God’s chosen people.” God’s chosen people have been known as Hebrews, Israelites and Jews, per the following link: http://www.jewfaq.org/whoisjew.htm

In the Bible, Jews were called Hebrews or Children of Israel. The terms “Jew” and “Judaism” come from the tribe or kingdom of Judah.

The Jews also believed that they were chosen by God to live in the land of Canaan, as was spoken by God to Abraham, Issac and Jacob (Genesis 12:1-3; Genesis 17:22; Genesis 26:3-5, 24; Genesis 27:28-29; Genesis 28:14-15). The books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers and Deuteronomy were written by Moses in the years 1450-1410 B.C.; Jews believe that God spoke the words of those books to him. (Documented in notes by Dr. Charles C. Ryrie, Dallas Theological Seminary). The following link describes Canaan as being the land that God had promised to the Jews.


The Promised Land

The history of the Jewish people begins with Abraham, and the story of Abraham begins when G-d tells him to leave his homeland, promising Abraham and his descendants a new home in the land of Canaan. (Gen. 12). This is the land now known as Israel, named after Abraham’s grandson, whose descendants are the Jewish people. The land is often referred to as the Promised Land because of G-d’s repeated promise (Gen. 12:7, 13:15, 15:18, 17:8) to give the land to the descendants of Abraham.

It is important to know that Jews wrote and maintained the books of the Tanakh. Christians refer to those writings as being the Old Testament of the Bible. The following information provides information on the Tenakh:


Hebrew Bible: Torah, Prophets and Writings

The Bible, also known as Tanakh, is the founding document of the Jews.

The Hebrew Bible, also known as Mikra (“what is read”) or TaNaKh, an acronym referring to the traditional Jewish division of the Bible into Torah (Teaching), Nevi’im (Prophets), and Ketuvim (Writings), is the founding document of the people of Israel, describing its origins, history and visions of a just society.

Israel: From 931 B.C. to 586 B.C.

When the first dispersal of the Jews occurred in 722 B.C., by Shalmaneser, King of Assyria, those conquered Jews were living in the northern kingdom of Israel. The record of the northern Jews being carried away into exile into Assyria can be found in 2 Kings 17:1-41. The account of the 722 B.C. diaspora was documented by Jeremiah, who was believed by the Jews to be a prophet of God to the Jews. From Assyria, the scattering of Jews continued throughout much of the middle east and Europe. The land in which those Jews had settled, and from where they were dispersed, was known as Samaria, hence, the name “Samaritans” (We’ve all heard about the story of the “good Samaritan).

It was after the death of Israel’s King Solomon, in 931 B.C. (1 Kings 11:43), that Israel became a divided kingdom. Ten of the twelve tribes of Israel followed King Jeroboam and settled north of Jerusalem, and became known as Israel. The remaining two tribes, Judah and Benjamin, stayed in Jerusalem, which became known as Judah, and were loyal to Rehoboam as their King,  Just as the northern ten tribes (Israel) were taken into exile in 722 B.C., the southern tribes (Judah) would be taken in exile to Babylon by King Nebuchadnezzar. There were three deportations of Jews from Judah, beginning in 597 BC, with the last one occurring in 586 B.C. The siege by King Nebuchadnezzar, as was stated in 2 Kings 24:10, ended with the final siege of Jerusalem that began in January, 588 B.C., and lasted for a year and a half (per Dr. Charles C. Ryrie, Dallas Theological Seminary).

Even though the Jews had been scattered throughout much of the middle east and Europe, they were told by the prophet Ezekiel that God would return them to their promised land of Israel, per Ezekiel 36:24-29. Other Jewish prophets also provided similar words of encouragement to the Jews of Judah and Israel. The accounts of the disaspora of Judah can be found recorded in 2 Kings 24:1 through 2 Kings 25:21.

Atrocities that came upon the city of Jerusalem, the Jews and the temple, at the hands of King Nebuchadnezzar and his forces, are documented by Jeremiah in 2 Kings 24 and 2 Kings 25. In order for anyone to understand the plight of the Jews, there must be understanding of the things that happened to them as they were being forced from their city of Jerusalem, and were being taken captive to Babylon, which is located in the present day nation of Iraq. It is also important to know the things that happened to the Jews while they were held captive by the Babylonians for 70 years. Babylon was located 59 miles southwest of present-day Baghdad. Former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein viewed himself as being the reincarnated King Nebuchadnezzar (https://www.olivetreeviews.org/e-updates/jans-articles/item/704-saddam-hussein-and-nebuchadnezzar-a-tale-of-two-kings). More of the story of the treatment of the dispersed Jews in Babylon can be found in the book of Daniel, which was written by a Jew who was also present in dispersed Babylon, and was viewed by Jews as being a prophet of God. Dr. John MacArthur provides excellent commentary on Chapters 24 and 25 of the book of Second Kings, and will be used in this article to point out key points of those two chapters.

It is important to remember that the writings of the Jews were maintained by the Jews. The commentaries of 2 Kings Chapters 24 and 25 will follow the words of those chapters. As a human being, I am appalled at the atrocities that the Babylonians inflicted upon the Jews. I will insert the word “Atrocity,” within the verses of text whenever such an occurrence is viewed by me. The chronology of the following events is very effective in showing the mistreatment of the Jews, who were being forced from their homes, temple and city by their Babylonian captors.

Why Did Hitler Hate Jewish People?

2 Kings 24 New American Standard Bible (NASB)

Babylon Controls Jehoiakim

1 In his days Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came up, and Jehoiakim became his servant for three years; then he turned and rebelled against him. 2 The Lord sent against him bands of Chaldeans, bands of Arameans, bands of Moabites, and bands of Ammonites. So He sent them against Judah to destroy it, according to the word of the Lord which He had spoken through His servants the prophets. 3 Surely at the command of the Lord it came upon Judah, to remove them from His sight because of the sins of Manasseh, according to all that he had done, 4 and also for the innocent blood which he shed, for he filled Jerusalem with innocent blood; and the Lord would not forgive. 5 Now the rest of the acts of Jehoiakim and all that he did, are they not written in the Book of the Chronicles of the Kings of Judah?

Jehoiachin Reigns

6 So Jehoiakim slept with his fathers, and Jehoiachin his son became king in his place. 7 The king of Egypt did not come out of his land again, for the king of Babylon had taken all that belonged to the king of Egypt from the brook of Egypt to the river Euphrates.

8 Jehoiachin was eighteen years old when he became king, and he reigned three months in Jerusalem; and his mother’s name was Nehushta the daughter of Elnathan of Jerusalem. 9 He did evil in the sight of the Lord, according to all that his father had done.

Deportation to Babylon

10 At that time the servants of Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon went up to Jerusalem, and the city came under siege. 11 And Nebuchadnezzar the king of Babylon came to the city, while his servants were besieging it. 12 Jehoiachin the king of Judah went out to the king of Babylon, he and his mother and his servants and his captains and his officials. So the king of Babylon took him captive in the eighth year of his reign. 13 He carried out from there all the treasures of the house of the Lord, and the treasures of the king’s house, and cut in pieces all the vessels of gold which Solomon king of Israel had made in the temple of the Lord, just as the Lord had said. 14 Then he led away into exile all Jerusalem and all the captains and all the mighty men of valor, ten thousand captives, and all the craftsmen and the smiths. None remained except the poorest people of the land.

Atrocity: vs 10-14

15 So he led Jehoiachin away into exile to Babylon; also the king’s mother and the king’s wives and his officials and the leading men of the land, he led away into exile from Jerusalem to Babylon. 16 All the men of valor, seven thousand, and the craftsmen and the smiths, one thousand, all strong and fit for war, and these the king of Babylon brought into exile to Babylon.

Atrocity: vs 15-16

Zedekiah Made King

17 Then the king of Babylon made his uncle Mattaniah king in his place, and changed his name to Zedekiah.

18 Zedekiah was twenty-one years old when he became king, and he reigned eleven years in Jerusalem; and his mother’s name was Hamutal the daughter of Jeremiah of Libnah. 19 He did evil in the sight of the Lord, according to all that Jehoiakim had done. 20 For through the anger of the Lord this came about in Jerusalem and Judah until He cast them out from His presence. And Zedekiah rebelled against the king of Babylon.

Commentary, 2 Kings 24 (Reference notes: Dr. John MacArthur)

24:1 Nebuchadnezzar. Nebuchadnezzar II was the son of Nabopolassar, king of Babylon from 626–605 B.C. As crown prince, Nebuchadnezzar had led his father’s army against Pharaoh Necho and the Egyptians at Carchemish on the Euphrates River in northern Syria (605 B.C.). By defeating the Egyptians, Babylon was established as the strongest nation in the ancient Near East. Egypt and its vassals, including Judah, became vassals of Babylon with this victory. Nebuchadnezzar followed up his victory at Carchemish by invading the land of Judah. Later, in 605 B.C., Nebuchadnezzar took some captives to Babylon, including Daniel and his friends (cf. Dan. 1:1–3). Toward the end of 605 B.C., Nabopolassar died and Nebuchadnezzar succeeded him as king of Babylon, 3 years after Jehoiakim had taken the throne in Judah (Jer. 25:1). Nebuchadnezzar reigned from 605–562 B.C. three years. Nebuchadnezzar returned to the W in 604 B.C. and took tribute from all of the kings of the W, including Jehoiakim of Judah. Jehoiakim submitted to Babylonian rule from 604–602 B.C. In 602 B.C., Jehoiakim rebelled against Babylon, disregarding the advice of the prophet Jeremiah (Jer. 27:9–11).

24:2 the Lord sent…raiding bands. As punishment for Jehoiakim’s disobedience of the Lord’s Word through His prophet Jeremiah, the Lord sent Babylonian troops, along with the troops of other loyal nations, to inflict military defeats upon Judah.

24:7 king of Egypt. In 601 B.C., Nebuchadnezzar again marched W against Egypt and was turned back by strong Egyptian resistance. However Egypt, though able to defend its own land, was not able to be aggressive and recover its conquered lands or provide any help for its allies, including Judah.

24:8 eighteen. This reading is preferred over the “eight” of 2 Chr. 36:9 (see note). three months. Having regrouped, Nebuchadnezzar invaded Judah for a second time in the spring of 597 B.C. Before he could enter Jerusalem, Jehoiakim died and was succeeded as king of Judah by his son, Jehoiachin. Jehoiachin ruled for a short time in 597 B.C. See note on 2 Chr. 36:9, 10.

24:10–12 The Babylonian siege of Jerusalem was begun by the troops of Nebuchadnezzar. Later, Nebuchadnezzar himself went to Jerusalem and it was to the king himself that Jehoiachin surrendered (v. 12).

24:12 eighth year. 597 B.C. For the first time, the books of Kings dated an event in Israelite history by a non-Israelite king. This indicated that Judah’s exile was imminent and the land would be in the hands of Gentiles.

24:13 Nebuchadnezzar plundered the treasures of the temple and king’s palace, just as the Lord had said he would (cf. 20:16–18).

24:14–16 In 597 B.C., Nebuchadnezzar took an additional 10,000 Judeans as captives to Babylon, in particular the leaders of the nation. This included the leaders of the military and those whose skills would support the military. Included in this deportation was the prophet Ezekiel (see notes on Ezek. 1:1–3). Only the lower classes remained behind in Jerusalem. The Babylonian policy of captivity was different from that of the Assyrians, who took most of the people into exile and resettled the land of Israel with foreigners (17:24). The Babylonians took only the leaders and the strong, while leaving the weak and poor, elevating those left to leadership and thereby earning their loyalty. Those taken to Babylon were allowed to work and live in the mainstream of society. This kept the captive Jews together, so it would be possible for them to return, as recorded in Ezra.

24:17 Mattaniah…Zedekiah. Mattaniah was a son of Josiah and an uncle of Jehoiachin (cf. 1 Chr. 3:15; Jer. 1:3). Mattaniah’s name, meaning “gift of the Lord,” was changed to Zedekiah, “righteousness of the Lord.” Nebuchadnezzar’s changing of Zedekiah’s name demonstrated his authority as lord over him (see note on 23:34). See notes on 2 Chr. 36:11–21.

24:18 eleven years. Zedekiah ruled in Jerusalem, under Babylonian sovereignty, from 597–586 B.C.

24:20 Zedekiah rebelled. In 588 B.C., Apries (also called Hophra), the grandson of Necho, became Pharaoh over Egypt. He appears to have influenced Zedekiah to revolt against Babylon (cf. Ezek. 17:15–18).

2 Kings 25 New American Standard Bible (NASB)

Nebuchadnezzar Besieges Jerusalem

1 Now in the ninth year of his reign, on the tenth day of the tenth month, Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon came, he and all his army, against Jerusalem, camped against it and built a siege wall all around it. 2 So the city was under siege until the eleventh year of King Zedekiah. 3 On the ninth day of the fourth month the famine was so severe in the city that there was no food for the people of the land. 4 Then the city was broken into, and all the men of war fled by night by way of the gate between the two walls beside the king’s garden, though the Chaldeans were all around the city. And they went by way of the Arabah. 5 But the army of the Chaldeans pursued the king and overtook him in the plains of Jericho and all his army was scattered from him. 6 Then they captured the king and brought him to the king of Babylon at Riblah, and he passed sentence on him. 7 They slaughtered the sons of Zedekiah before his eyes, then put out the eyes of Zedekiah and bound him with bronze fetters and brought him to Babylon.

Atrocity: vs 1-7

Jerusalem Burned and Plundered

8 Now on the seventh day of the fifth month, which was the nineteenth year of King Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard, a servant of the king of Babylon, came to Jerusalem. 9 He burned the house of the Lord, the king’s house, and all the houses of Jerusalem; even every great house he burned with fire. 10 So all the army of the Chaldeans who were with the captain of the guard broke down the walls around Jerusalem. 11 Then the rest of the people who were left in the city and the deserters who had deserted to the king of Babylon and the rest of the people, Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard carried away into exile. 12 But the captain of the guard left some of the poorest of the land to be vinedressers and plowmen.

Atrocity: vs 8-12

13 Now the bronze pillars which were in the house of the Lord, and the stands and the bronze sea which were in the house of the Lord, the Chaldeans broke in pieces and carried the bronze to Babylon. 14 They took away the pots, the shovels, the snuffers, the spoons, and all the bronze vessels which were used in temple service. 15 The captain of the guard also took away the firepans and the basins, what was fine gold and what was fine silver. 16 The two pillars, the one sea, and the stands which Solomon had made for the house of the Lord—the bronze of all these vessels was beyond weight. 17 The height of the one pillar was eighteen cubits, and a bronze capital was on it; the height of the capital was three cubits, with a network and pomegranates on the capital all around, all of bronze. And the second pillar was like these with network.

Atrocity: vs 13-17

18 Then the captain of the guard took Seraiah the chief priest and Zephaniah the second priest, with the three officers of the temple. 19 From the city he took one official who was overseer of the men of war, and five of the king’s advisers who were found in the city; and the scribe of the captain of the army who mustered the people of the land; and sixty men of the people of the land who were found in the city. 20 Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard took them and brought them to the king of Babylon at Riblah. 21 Then the king of Babylon struck them down and put them to death at Riblah in the land of Hamath. So Judah was led away into exile from its land.

Atrocity: vs 18-21

Gedaliah Made Governor

22 Now as for the people who were left in the land of Judah, whom Nebuchadnezzar king of Babylon had left, he appointed Gedaliah the son of Ahikam, the son of Shaphan over them. 23 When all the captains of the forces, they and their men, heard that the king of Babylon had appointed Gedaliah governor, they came to Gedaliah to Mizpah, namely, Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, and Johanan the son of Kareah, and Seraiah the son of Tanhumeth the Netophathite, and Jaazaniah the son of the Maacathite, they and their men. 24 Gedaliah swore to them and their men and said to them, “Do not be afraid of the servants of the Chaldeans; live in the land and serve the king of Babylon, and it will be well with you.”

25 But it came about in the seventh month, that Ishmael the son of Nethaniah, the son of Elishama, of the royal family, came with ten men and struck Gedaliah down so that he died along with the Jews and the Chaldeans who were with him at Mizpah. 26 Then all the people, both small and great, and the captains of the forces arose and went to Egypt; for they were afraid of the Chaldeans.

Atrocity: vs 25-26

27 Now it came about in the thirty-seventh year of the exile of Jehoiachin king of Judah, in the twelfth month, on the twenty-seventh day of the month, that Evil-merodach king of Babylon, in the year that he became king, released Jehoiachin king of Judah from prison; 28 and he spoke kindly to him and set his throne above the throne of the kings who were with him in Babylon. 29 Jehoiachin changed his prison clothes and had his meals in the king’s presence regularly all the days of his life; 30 and for his allowance, a regular allowance was given him by the king, a portion for each day, all the days of his life.

Commentary, 2 Kings 25 (Reference notes: Dr. John MacArthur)

25:1 ninth year. Responding to Zedekiah’s rebellion (24:20), Nebuchadnezzar sent his whole army to lay siege against the city of Jerusalem. The siege began in the ninth year of Zedekiah’s reign, Jan., 588 B.C. The “siege wall” was comprised of either wood towers higher than the walls of the city or a dirt rampart encircling the city

25:2 eleventh year. Jerusalem withstood the siege until the 11th year of Zedekiah, July, 586 B.C. Hezekiah’s tunnel guaranteed the city an uninterrupted supply of fresh water (20:20) and an Egyptian foray into Judah gave the city a temporary reprieve from the siege (Jer. 37:5)
25:3 famine. After a siege of 2½ years, the food supply in Jerusalem ran out (Jer. 38:2, 3).

25:4 the city wall was broken. The two walls near the king’s garden were probably located at the extreme SE corner of the city, giving direct access to the Kidron Valley. This gave Zedekiah and his soldiers an opportunity to flee for their lives to the E.

25:5 plains of Jericho. Zedekiah fled toward the Jordan Rift Valley. Babylonian pursuers caught him in the Jordan Valley S of Jericho, about 20 mi. E of Jerusalem.

25:6 Riblah. Located on the Orontes River about 180 mi. N of Jerusalem, Riblah was Nebuchadnezzar’s military headquarters for his invasion of Judah. This location was ideally situated as a field headquarters for military forces because ample provisions could be found nearby (cf. 23:33). The captured traitor Zedekiah was brought to Nebuchadnezzar at Riblah, where he was blinded after witnessing the death of his sons. The execution of the royal heirs ensured the impossibility of a future claim to the throne or rebellion from his descendants. The blinding made his own future rebellion or retaliation impossible. Jeremiah had warned Zedekiah that he would see Nebuchadnezzar (see notes on Jer. 32:2–5; 34:3), while Ezekiel had said he would not see Babylon (see note on Ezek. 12:10–13). Both prophecies were accurately fulfilled.

25:8 seventh day. See note on Jer. 52:12. This was Aug., 586 B.C., one month after the Babylonian breakthrough of Jerusalem’s walls (vv. 2–4). Nebuzaradan. He was the commander of Nebuchadnezzar’s own imperial guard, sent by the king to oversee the destruction of Jerusalem. The dismantling and destruction of Jerusalem was accomplished by the Babylonians in an orderly progression.

25:9 First, Jerusalem’s most important buildings were burned.

25:10 Second, the Babylonian army tore down Jerusalem’s outer walls, the city’s main defense.

25:11, 12 Third, Nebuzaradan organized and led a forced march of remaining Judeans into exile in Babylon. The exiles included survivors from Jerusalem and those who had surrendered to the Babylonians before the capture of the city. Only poor, unskilled laborers were left behind to tend the vineyards and farm the fields.

25:13–17 Fourth, the items made with precious metals in the temple were carried away to Babylon. See notes on 1 Kin. 7:15–49.

25:18–21 Fifth, Nebuzaradan took Jerusalem’s remaining leaders to Riblah, where Nebuchadnezzar had them executed. This insured that they would never lead another rebellion against Babylon.

25:18 Seraiah. Seraiah was the grandson of Hilkiah (22:4, 8; 1 Chr. 6:13, 14) and an ancestor of Ezra (Ezra 7:1). Even though Seraiah was executed, his sons were deported (1 Chr. 6:15).

25:21 Judah…carried away captive. Exile was the ultimate curse brought upon Judah because of her disobedience to the Mosaic Covenant (cf. Lev. 26:33; Deut. 28:36, 64). The book of Lamentations records the sorrow of Jeremiah over this destruction of Jerusalem.

25:22–30 The books of Kings conclude with this brief epilogue. Despite the punishment of the Lord experienced by Israel and Judah, the people were still rebellious (vv. 22–26). However, due to the Lord’s mercy, the house of David endured (vv. 27–30). The books of Kings end with a note of hope.

25:22 Gedaliah. In an attempt to maintain political stability, Nebuchadnezzar appointed a governor from an important Judean family. A more detailed account of Gedaliah’s activities is found in Jer. 40:7—41:18. Gedaliah’s grandfather, Shaphan, was Josiah’s secretary, who had implemented that king’s reforms (22:3). His father, Ahikam, was part of Josiah’s delegation sent to Huldah (22:14) and a supporter of the prophet Jeremiah (Jer. 26:24).

25:23 Mizpah. Located about 8 mi. N of Jerusalem, Mizpah became the new center of Judah. Mizpah might have been one of the few towns left standing after the Babylonian invasion.

25:24 oath. As governor, Gedaliah pledged to the remaining people that loyalty to the Babylonians would ensure their safety.

25:25 seventh month. October, 586 B.C., two months after the destruction of Jerusalem (cf. v. 8). Ishmael. Elishama, Ishmael’s grandfather, was a secretary under Jehoiakim (Jer. 36:12; 41:1). Ishmael probably assassinated Gedaliah because he wished to reestablish the kingship in Judah with himself as king, since he was of royal blood (cf. Jer. 41:1).

25:26 went to Egypt. Fearing reprisals from the Babylonians, the people fled to Egypt.

25:27 thirty-seventh year. March, 561 B.C. Jehoiachin was about 55 years old (cf. 24:8). Evil-Merodach. The son and successor of Nebuchadnezzar, he ruled as king of Babylon from 562–560 B.C. To gain favor with the Jews, the king released Jehoiachin from his imprisonment and gave him special privileges.

25:28–30 spoke kindly to him. This good word from the king of Babylon to the surviving representative of the house of David served as a concluding reminder of God’s good Word to David. Through the curse of exile, the dynasty of David had survived. There was still hope that God’s good Word to David concerning the seed who will build God’s temple and establish God’s eternal kingdom would be fulfilled (cf. 2 Sam. 7:12–16). The book of 2 Kings opened with Elijah being carried away to heaven, the destination of all those faithful to God. The book ends with Israel, and then Judah, being carried away to pagan lands as a result of failing to be faithful to God.

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Israel, A Look Within, From Without

Israel, A Look Within, From Without

The nation of Israel is rich in culture and history. No one can deny the contributions to our world that have come from such a small nation, having such a small citizenry. Please consider the value to society that the nation of Israel has provided, in spite of the many obstacles that have been placed in its way. The opening video shows a major obstacle that the Jewish people have had to overcome. The Jewish children in Germany, in the 1930s, are seen singing Hatikvah, which would become the national anthem of the nation of Israel. Many of the children, if not all of them, would be murdered in the Nazi death camps during the Holocaust.

Click onto the following links to learn more about the Holocaust. Much of the free world remained silent as the Holocaust continued with the murders of more than six million Jews being the result.


The Holocaust was the systematic, bureaucratic, state-sponsored persecution and murder of six million Jews by the Nazi regime and its collaborators. Holocaust is a word of Greek origin meaning “sacrifice by fire.” The Nazis, who came to power in Germany in January 1933, believed that Germans were “racially superior” and that the Jews, deemed “inferior,” were an alien threat to the so-called German racial community.

Consider some of the notes that were placed on You Tube.

דער שטעטל: ילדי הגימנסיה העברית בעיירה מונקאטש שבהרי הקרפטים שרים “התקווה” שנות ה’תר”צ המוקדמות, בין שתי מלחמות העולם.

Children from the Hebrew Gymnasium Singing “Hatikvah” in Munkács, the early 1930’s


1 year ago
IM crying. They sing the first version of “Hatikvah” the “religious” one. They have a heavy European accent. They were all killed in the Holocaust. I’m in tears and crying.

View all 5 replies
Tobías Leon
Tobías Leon
1 year ago
think 90% of these kids died before 15

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Merobel luis
Merobel luis
2 years ago

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Roger Hudson
Roger Hudson
8 months ago
The most moving version of Hatikva on youtube, evidence that nazism but be total smashed. I pray for all their souls.

Tongsat Haokip
Tongsat Haokip
8 months ago
jews being God ‘s own people have been subjected to all kinds of exploitations. I really like Hatikvah it reminds me of their captivity to Babylon , the Roman invasion in 70 AD ,the Holocaust ,the Anne’s diary . i pledge for them a happy,peaceful and harmonius life forgetting their sufferings of almost 2,000 years.May God bless Israel.Amen.


As with most non-Jews, my view and perception of Israel is “from without.” As a gentile (not Jewish), having grown up in a city having a large Jewish population and influence, I have come to love the Jewish people, whether they are naturalized citizens from other countries, or if they are home-grown in my nation, The United States Of America. There are many people who live in other nations, as well as in America, who do not share my love or appreciation for Israel and its people. In this, and in following posts, I will attempt to paint a “prettier face” on a people who are, all too often, shown as having an “ugly face”in our world’s community of nations. The history of the Jews shows that the nation of Israel has often come under great oppression, from many other nations and people, with many deaths taking place. Israel is the only democratically run nation in its region of the world. A variety of sources of information will be used to show Israel in the light that I see that nation, and its people.

The nation of Israel has appx 8.6 million people, with appx 6.5 million being Jews.
The size of Israel is about the same size as that of the state of New Jersey.
Of 350 million people living in the middle east, Jews make up only about 6.5 million of the 350 million.

Consider a look at Israel, “from within.”

Israeli Arts, Culture And Literature, Culture In Israel, by Asher Weill


A review of any country’s cultural history over the last fifty years would show enormous changes – undoubtedly a quantum leap – and certainly more changes than in any other fifty year period in history. How much more so in Israel, where that same period was marked by a series of cataclysmic events which had – and are still having – an effect on the very nature and cultural character of this young but old nation.

Israel in 1948: a country of 640,000 Jews; just three years after the annihilation of six million Jews in Nazi-occupied Europe. A country on the eve of invasion by five neighboring Arab nations intent on wiping it out, or, in the words of one Arab leader, “driving the Jews into the sea.” A country in the throes of absorbing the remnant of decimated European Jewry – despoiled of all their worldly goods and brutally severed from their cultural and linguistic roots, but intent on surviving and creating a new life in the one piece of land that was prepared to accept them.

Each of the decades that followed was marked by yet more social and political convulsions. The fifties were the years of the mass immigration of Jews from Arab lands: from Morocco, from the Yemen, from Iraq; and of tens of thousands of Jews from some 70 countries worldwide, all of whom had brought with them their own language, national heritage and cultural baggage.

The sixties were, above all, marked by the military victory in the Six-Day War of 1967, when a whole new national mythos and sense of euphoria engulfed not only the Jewish population of Israel, but indeed the entire Jewish Diaspora – only to be shattered to a large extent by the Yom Kippur War of 1973 and its aftermath, some of the effects of which are still very much with us nearly three decades later. The seventies and the eighties saw the first tentative bridges to peace with the Arab world, beginning with the historic visit to Israel of President Anwar al-Sadat of Egypt in 1977.

History of Israel, Its Diaspora and Return, 722 B.C., forward


Ancient Jewish History: The Diaspora

The Jewish state comes to an end in 70 AD, when the Romans begin to actively drive Jews from the home they had lived in for over a millennium. But the Jewish Diaspora (“diaspora” =”dispersion, scattering”) had begun long before the Romans had even dreamed of Judaea. When the Assyrians conquered Israel in 722, the Hebrew inhabitants were scattered all over the Middle East; these early victims of the dispersion disappeared utterly from the pages of history. However, when Nebuchadnezzar deported the Judaeans in 597 and 586 BC, he allowed them to remain in a unified community in Babylon. Another group of Judaeans fled to Egypt, where they settled in the Nile delta. So from 597 onwards, there were three distinct groups of Hebrews: a group in Babylon and other parts of the Middle East, a group in Judaea, and another group in Egypt. Thus, 597 is considered the beginning date of the Jewish Diaspora. While Cyrus the Persian allowed the Judaeans to return to their homeland in 538 BC, most chose to remain in Babylon. A large number of Jews in Egypt became mercenaries in Upper Egypt on an island called the Elephantine. All of these Jews retained their religion, identity, and social customs; both under the Persians and the Greeks, they were allowed to run their lives under their own laws. Some converted to other religions; still others combined the Yahweh cult with local cults; but the majority clung to the Hebraic religion and its new-found core document, the Torah.

In 63 BC, Judaea became a protectorate of Rome. Coming under the administration of a governor, Judaea was allowed a king; the governor’s business was to regulate trade and maximize tax revenue. While the Jews despised the Greeks, the Romans were a nightmare. Governorships were bought at high prices; the governors would attempt to squeeze as much revenue as possible from their regions and pocket as much as they could. Even with a Jewish king, the Judaeans revolted in 70 AD, a desperate revolt that ended tragically. In 73 AD, the last of the revolutionaries were holed up in a mountain fort called Masada; the Romans had besieged the fort for two years, and the 1,000 men, women, and children inside were beginning to starve. In desperation, the Jewish revolutionaries killed themselves rather than surrender to the Romans. The Romans then destroyed Jerusalem, annexed Judaea as a Roman province, and systematically drove the Jews from Palestine. After 73 AD, Hebrew history would only be the history of the Diaspora as the Jews and their world view spread over Africa, Asia, and Europe. Sources: The Hebrews: A Learning Module from Washington State University

The most direct way of discussing the diaspora of the Jews is to use the Complete Jewish Bible, which was translated into English by Dr. David H. Stern, who was born a Jew, and lives in Israel. As you can see, a bible is a book; it is a book that is regarded as being one of authority. The Jewish writings have been maintained by the Jews; the original languages were Hebrew and Aramaic. In approximately 405 A.D., those writings were translated into Latin by Jerome.


Comments in this article will be made relative to the situations in which the Jewish people found themselves during their diaspora. There may be different views and understandings of the Jewish writings but, one thing is certain; they were written by Jews, and from a Jewish point of understanding and perspective.

Consider the following comments on the word, “bible.”

Bible – definition of Bible in English | Oxford Dictionaries


Consider the following uses of “bible.”

A book regarded as authoritative in a particular sphere.

The Jewish scriptures, consisting of the Torah or Law, the Prophets, and the Hagiographa or Writings.

‘A cooking bible can be so helpful when it comes to unusual ingredients, and cooking techniques.’
‘But I was also obsessed with the possibility of the future turning out to be horrible – so I carried around 1984, Farenheit 451 and Brave New World like they were my Bibles.’
‘This is the bible of cooking – as simple or as complicated as you care to get.’
‘The book became the bible of the democracy movement, and the city a place of pilgrimage for human rights activists.’
‘My bible is Mastering The Art Of French Cooking, a two-volume cookery book I was given at 25.’


Translated by Dr. David H. Stern

Version Information

Presenting the Word of God as a unified Jewish book, the Complete Jewish Bible (CJB) is a translation for Jews and non-Jews alike. It connects readers with the Jewishness of the Messiah. Names and key terms are returned to their original Hebrew and presented in easy-to-understand transliterations, enabling the reader to say them the way Yeshua (Jesus) did.

The CJB is a translation of the Bible into English by Dr. David H. Stern. It consists of Dr. Stern’s revised translation of the Old Testament (Tanakh) plus his original Jewish New Testament (B’rit Hadashah) translation in one volume. It was published in its entirety in 1998 by Jewish New Testament Publications, Inc.

The Old Testament translation is a paraphrase of the public domain 1917 Jewish Publication Society version. The New Testament section is Dr. Stern’s original translation from the ancient Greek.

Dr. Stern’s purpose for producing the Complete Jewish Bible was “to restore God’s Word to its original Jewish context and culture as well as be in easily read modern English.”

The CJB follows the order and the names of the Old Testament books in the Jewish Bible, rather than those of typical Christian Bibles. It uses Hebrew names for people and places, such as Eliyahu for “Elijah”, and Sha’ul for “Saul.” The work also incorporates Hebrew and Yiddish expressions, such as matzah for “unleavened bread” and mikveh for “ritual immersion pool”.

The calendar begins.

722 B.C. Assyrians deported 27,290 inhabitants of Israel to distant locations, from which many of them have remained until this day.

“In the ninth year of Hoshea, the king of Ashur captured Shomron. He carried Isra’el away captive to Ashur, resettling them in Halach, in Havor on the Gozan River and in the cities of the Medes.” (2 Kings 17:6)

17:6 king of Assyria. Sargon II (see note on 17:3). carried Israel away. The capture of Samaria marked the end of the northern kingdom. According to Assyrian records, the Assyrians deported 27,290 inhabitants of Israel to distant locations. The relocation of populations was characteristic of Assyrian policy during that era. The Israelites were resettled in the upper Tigris-Euphrates Valley and never returned to the Promised Land. “Halah” was a city NE of Nineveh. The “Habor” River was a northern tributary of the Euphrates. The “cities of the Medes” were NE of Nineveh. Samaria was resettled with foreigners (v. 24). God did what He said He would do in Deut. 28. The Jews were carried as far E as Susa, where the book of Esther later took place. (The author of 2 Kings was the prophet Jeremiah, ca. 550 B.C., per Dr. Charles C. Ryrie, Dallas Theological Seminary, deceased.)

The buildup to the deportation of the Jews starts with the death of King Solomon, ca. 931 B.C., 1 Kings 11:43. At that time, there were twelve tribes of Israel, with all of them living in, or around Jerusalem, in Israel; they were a unified kingdom. Soon, thereafter, they became a divided kingdom. Rehoboam and Jeroboam were both kings reigning in Israel’s divided kingdom. Rehoboam was one of Solomon’s sons and king of Judah in the south (1 Kings 11:43). Jeroboam was one of Solomon’s former officials, an Ephraimite, and king of Israel in the north (1 Kings 11:26). The two southern tribes, Judah and Benjamin, remained at Jerusalem, and were called “Judah.” The northern tribes became known as “Israel,” and settled in Samaria. (1 Kings 12:16-20; 1 Kings 14:21-24). Jeroboam reigned until his death in 910 B.C., 1 Kings 14:20. Rehoboam reigned until his death in 913 B.C., 1 Kings 14:31. From that point in time, forward, other kings assumed leadership of the northern and southern tribes, with a splintering of each group taking place, and the first deportation of Jews taking place in 722 B.C., with the ten northern tribes being removed from their land, per 2 Kings 17:6. The splintering of the two southern tribes was taking place, too. The next post will discuss the effects of that dysfunction.

Food for thought.

“Jeroboam” and his ten tribes “jumped” north to Samaria. “Rehoboam” and his two tribes”remained” in Jerusalem.

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Replacement Theology: “Baruch Haba B’Shem Adonai” – A Promise, Worship, A Discussion, Verses

Replacement Theology: “Baruch Haba B’Shem Adonai” – A Promise, Worship, A Discussion, Verses
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Baruch Haba B’Shem Adonai https

Let The Weight Of Your Glory Fall

For Your Name Is Holy

Click onto the following link to view a discussion on the subject of replacement theology.

Has The Church Replaced Israel?

by Dallas Theological Seminary on October 14, 2014

Consider the following scriptures that relate to the promises of God, as they relate to Israel.

Deuteronomy 7:6 New King James Version (NKJV)

6 “For you are a holy people to the Lord your God; the Lord your God has chosen you to be a people for Himself, a special treasure above all the peoples on the face of the earth.

Psalm 118:26 New King James Version (NKJV)

26 Blessed is he who comes in the name of the Lord!
We have blessed you from the house of the Lord.

Jeremiah 16:14-15 New King James Version (NKJV)

God Will Restore Israel

14 “Therefore behold, the days are coming,” says the Lord, “that it shall no more be said, ‘The Lord lives who brought up the children of Israel from the land of Egypt,’ 15 but, ‘The Lord lives who brought up the children of Israel from the land of the north and from all the lands where He had driven them.’ For I will bring them back into their land which I gave to their fathers.

Jeremiah 31:3 New King James Version (NKJV)

3 The Lord has appeared to me, saying. “Yes, I have loved you with an everlasting love; Therefore with loving kindness I have drawn you.”

Jeremiah 31:31-32 New King James Version (NKJV)

A New Covenant

31 “Behold, the days are coming, says the Lord, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah— 32 not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, though I was a husband to them, says the Lord.

Ezekiel 11:14-20 New King James Version (NKJV)

God Will Restore Israel

14 Again the word of the Lord came to me, saying, 15 “Son of man, your brethren, your relatives, your countrymen, and all the house of Israel in its entirety, are those about whom the inhabitants of Jerusalem have said, ‘Get far away from the Lord; this land has been given to us as a possession.’ 16 Therefore say, ‘Thus says the Lord God: “Although I have cast them far off among the Gentiles, and although I have scattered them among the countries, yet I shall be a little sanctuary for them in the countries where they have gone.”’ 17 Therefore say, ‘Thus says the Lord God: “I will gather you from the peoples, assemble you from the countries where you have been scattered, and I will give you the land of Israel.”’ 18 And they will go there, and they will take away all its detestable things and all its abominations from there.19 Then I will give them one heart, and I will put a new spirit within them, and take the stony heart out of their flesh, and give them a heart of flesh, 20 that they may walk in My statutes and keep My judgments and do them; and they shall be My people, and I will be their God.

Ezekiel 36:24-28 New King James Version (NKJV)

24 For I will take you from among the nations, gather you out of all countries, and bring you into your own land. 25 Then I will sprinkle clean water on you, and you shall be clean; I will cleanse you from all your filthiness and from all your idols. 26 I will give you a new heart and put a new spirit within you; I will take the heart of stone out of your flesh and give you a heart of flesh. 27 I will put My Spirit within you and cause you to walk in My statutes, and you will keep My judgments and do them. 28 Then you shall dwell in the land that I gave to your fathers; you shall be My people, and I will be your God.

Ezekiel 37 New King James Version (NKJV)

The Dry Bones Live

1 The hand of the Lord came upon me and brought me out in the Spirit of the Lord, and set me down in the midst of the valley; and it was full of bones. 2 Then He caused me to pass by them all around, and behold, there were very many in the open valley; and indeed they were very dry. 3 And He said to me, “Son of man, can these bones live?” So I answered, “O Lord God, You know.”
4 Again He said to me, “Prophesy to these bones, and say to them, ‘O dry bones, hear the word of the Lord! 5 Thus says the Lord God to these bones: “Surely I will cause breath to enter into you, and you shall live. 6 I will put sinews on you and bring flesh upon you, cover you with skin and put breath in you; and you shall live. Then you shall know that I am the Lord.”’”
7 So I prophesied as I was commanded; and as I prophesied, there was a noise, and suddenly a rattling; and the bones came together, bone to bone. 8 Indeed, as I looked, the sinews and the flesh came upon them, and the skin covered them over; but there was no breath in them.
9 Also He said to me, “Prophesy to the breath, prophesy, son of man, and say to the breath, ‘Thus says the Lord God: “Come from the four winds, O breath, and breathe on these slain, that they may live.”’” 10 So I prophesied as He commanded me, and breath came into them, and they lived, and stood upon their feet, an exceedingly great army.
11 Then He said to me, “Son of man, these bones are the whole house of Israel. They indeed say, ‘Our bones are dry, our hope is lost, and we ourselves are cut off!’ 12 Therefore prophesy and say to them, ‘Thus says the Lord God: “Behold, O My people, I will open your graves and cause you to come up from your graves, and bring you into the land of Israel. 13 Then you shall know that I am the Lord, when I have opened your graves, O My people, and brought you up from your graves. 14 I will put My Spirit in you, and you shall live, and I will place you in your own land. Then you shall know that I, the Lord, have spoken it and performed it,” says the Lord.’”

One Kingdom, One King

15 Again the word of the Lord came to me, saying, 16 “As for you, son of man, take a stick for yourself and write on it: ‘For Judah and for the children of Israel, his companions.’ Then take another stick and write on it, ‘For Joseph, the stick of Ephraim, and for all the house of Israel, his companions.’ 17 Then join them one to another for yourself into one stick, and they will become one in your hand.
18 “And when the children of your people speak to you, saying, ‘Will you not show us what you mean by these?’— 19 say to them, ‘Thus says the Lord God: “Surely I will take the stick of Joseph, which is in the hand of Ephraim, and the tribes of Israel, his companions; and I will join them with it, with the stick of Judah, and make them one stick, and they will be one in My hand.”’ 20 And the sticks on which you write will be in your hand before their eyes.
21 “Then say to them, ‘Thus says the Lord God: “Surely I will take the children of Israel from among the nations, wherever they have gone, and will gather them from every side and bring them into their own land; 22 and I will make them one nation in the land, on the mountains of Israel; and one king shall be king over them all; they shall no longer be two nations, nor shall they ever be divided into two kingdoms again. 23 They shall not defile themselves anymore with their idols, nor with their detestable things, nor with any of their transgressions; but I will deliver them from all their dwelling places in which they have sinned, and will cleanse them. Then they shall be My people, and I will be their God.
24 “David My servant shall be king over them, and they shall all have one shepherd; they shall also walk in My judgments and observe My statutes, and do them. 25 Then they shall dwell in the land that I have given to Jacob My servant, where your fathers dwelt; and they shall dwell there, they, their children, and their children’s children, forever; and My servant David shall be their prince forever. 26 Moreover I will make a covenant of peace with them, and it shall be an everlasting covenant with them; I will establish them and multiply them, and I will set My sanctuary in their midst forevermore. 27 My tabernacle also shall be with them; indeed I will be their God, and they shall be My people. 28 The nations also will know that I, the Lord, sanctify Israel, when My sanctuary is in their midst forevermore.”’”

Romans 11:26-29 New King James Version (NKJV)

26 And so all Israel will be saved, as it is written:
“The Deliverer will come out of Zion,
And He will turn away ungodliness from Jacob;
27 For this is My covenant with them,
When I take away their sins.”

28 Concerning the gospel they are enemies for your sake, but concerning the election they are beloved for the sake of the fathers.

29 For the gifts and the calling of God are irrevocable.

Matthew 23:37-39 New King James Version (NKJV)

Jesus Laments over Jerusalem

37 “O Jerusalem, Jerusalem, the one who kills the prophets and stones those who are sent to her! How often I wanted to gather your children together, as a hen gathers her chicks under her wings, but you were not willing! 38 See! Your house is left to you desolate;

39 for I say to you, you shall see Me no more till you say, ‘Blessed is He who comes in the name of the Lord!’

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God’s Love For His Chosen People, Israel

Shalom Jerusalem – Paul Wilbur

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Pray for the peace of Jerusalem: “May they prosper who love you.” (Psalm 122:6)

Deuteronomy 7:6 New International Version (NIV)

6 For you are a people holy to the Lord your God. The Lord your God has chosen you out of all the peoples on the face of the earth to be his people, his treasured possession.

Jeremiah 31:3 New International Version (NIV)

3 The Lord appeared to us in the past, saying:

“I have loved you with an everlasting love;
I have drawn you with unfailing kindness.

Zechariah 2:8 New International Version (NIV)

8 For this is what the Lord Almighty says: “After the Glorious One has sent me against the nations that have plundered you—for whoever touches you touches the apple of his eye—

Zechariah 14:1-13 (selected verses) New International Version (NIV)

1 A day of the Lord is coming, Jerusalem, when your possessions will be plundered and divided up within your very walls. 2 I will gather all the nations to Jerusalem to fight against it; the city will be captured … 3 Then the Lord will go out and fight against those nations, as he fights on a day of battle… 12 This is the plague with which the Lord will strike all the nations that fought against Jerusalem: Their flesh will rot while they are still standing on their feet, their eyes will rot in their sockets, and their tongues will rot in their mouths. 13 On that day people will be stricken by the Lord with great panic. They will seize each other by the hand and attack one another.

9 The Lord will be king over the whole earth. On that day there will be one Lord, and his name the only name.

Psalm 46:10 New International Version (NIV)

10 He says, “Be still, and know that I am God;
I will be exalted among the nations,
I will be exalted in the earth.”

Baruch Haba B’Shem Adonai – Paul Wilbur

Praise Adonai – Paul Wilbur

Yeshua Ha Mashciach – Paul Wilbur

Let God Arise – Paul Wilbur

Days Of Elijah – Paul Wilbur

In Your Presence – Paul Wilbur

Sing Hallelujah- Paul Wilbuur

Let The Weight Of Your Glory Fall – Paul Wilbur

For Your Name Is Holy – Paul Wilbur