Pentecost And Shavuot – Two Holy Events

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When is Pentecost Sunday? What is Pentecost Sunday?

June 4, 2017 – Pentecost Sunday

https://www.gotquestions.org/Pentecost-Sunday.html
Pentecost Sunday is a commemoration and celebration of the receiving of the Holy Spirit by the early church. John the Baptist prophesied of the first Pentecost when Jesus would baptize with the Holy Spirit and with fire (Matthew 3:11). Jesus confirmed this prophecy with the promise of the Holy Spirit to the disciples in John 14:26.

http://www.calendarpedia.com/when-is/pentecost-sunday.html
An Eastern Orthodox icon of Pentecost An Eastern Orthodox icon of Pentecost Sunday is the day of the Pentecost festival, a prominent feast in the calendar of Ancient Israel celebrating the giving of the Law on Sinai, and also later in the Christian liturgical year commemorating the descent of the Holy Spirit upon the remaining eleven disciples of Christ (Judas had hanged himself) after the Resurrection of Jesus. It always falls on the seventh Sunday after Easter. Pentecost means “fiftieth day”: it is celebrated 50 days from Easter Sunday (including Easter Sunday in the counting), hence its name.
See Acts 1:6-8 and, 2:1-11 below.

When Is Shavuot? What is Shavuot?

Sunset May 30, 2017 – Nightfall June 1, 2017 Jewish Year 5778:
http://www.jewfaq.org/holidayc.htm
Shavu’ot, the Festival of Weeks, is the second of the three major festivals with both historical and agricultural significance (the other two are Passover and Sukkot). The period from Passover to Shavu’ot is a time of great anticipation. We count each of the days from the second day of Passover to the day before Shavu’ot, 49 days or 7 full weeks,

Acts 1:1-15 NASB 1977

Introduction

1The first account I composed, Theophilus, about all that Jesus began to do and teach, 2until the day when He was taken up, after He had by the Holy Spirit given orders to the apostles whom He had chosen. 3To these He also presented Himself alive, after His suffering, by many convincing proofs, appearing to them over a period of forty days, and speaking of the things concerning the kingdom of God. 4And gathering them together, He commanded them not to leave Jerusalem, but to wait for what the Father had promised, “Which,” He said, “you heard of from Me; 5for John baptized with water, but you shall be baptized with the Holy Spirit not many days from now.”

6And so when they had come together, they were asking Him, saying, “Lord, is it at this time You are restoring the kingdom to Israel?” 7He said to them, “It is not for you to know times or epochs which the Father has fixed by His own authority; 8but you shall receive power when the Holy Spirit has come upon you; and you shall be My witnesses both in Jerusalem, and in all Judea and Samaria, and even to the remotest part of the earth.”

The Ascension

9And after He had said these things, He was lifted up while they were looking on, and a cloud received Him out of their sight. 10And as they were gazing intently into the sky while He was departing, behold, two men in white clothing stood beside them; 11and they also said, “Men of Galilee, why do you stand looking into the sky? This Jesus, who has been taken up from you into heaven, will come in just the same way as you have watched Him go into heaven.”

The Upper Room

12Then they returned to Jerusalem from the mount called Olivet, which is near Jerusalem, a Sabbath day’s journey away. 13And when they had entered, they went up to the upper room, where they were staying; that is, Peter and John and James and Andrew, Philip and Thomas, Bartholomew and Matthew, James the son of Alphaeus, and Simon the Zealot, and Judas the son of James. 14These all with one mind were continually devoting themselves to prayer, along with the women, and Mary the mother of Jesus, and with His brothers. 15And at this time Peter stood up in the midst of the brethren (a gathering of about one hundred and twenty persons was there together),

Notes: MacArthur Study Bible (Everyone should own a MacArthur Study Bible)

1:1 former account. The Gospel of Luke (Luke 1:1–4; see Introduction: Background and Setting). That account chronicled the life and teaching of Jesus, through His death, resurrection, and ascension (Luke 24:51). Theophilus. The original recipient of this book.
1:2 taken up. Christ’s ascension to the Father (cf. Luke 24:51). Luke uses this term 3 other times (vv. 9, 11, 22) to describe the end of the Lord’s earthly ministry (cf. John 6:62; 13:1, 3; 16:28; 17:13; 20:17). through the Holy Spirit had given commandments. The Spirit was the source and power of Jesus’ earthly ministry (cf. Matt. 4:1; 12:18; Mark 1:12; Luke 3:22; 4:1, 14, 18) and of the apostles’ service (cf. Luke 24:49; John 14:16, 17; 16:7). “Commandments” are authoritative NT truths, revealed to the apostles (cf. John 14:26; 16:13–15). He had chosen. The Lord sovereignly chose the apostles for salvation and service (cf. John 6:70; 15:16).
1:5 John…baptized with water. See note on 2:38. baptized with the Holy Spirit. The apostles had to wait until the Day of Pentecost, but since then all believers are baptized with the Holy Spirit at salvation (see note on 1 Cor. 12:13; cf. Rom. 8:9; 1 Cor. 6:19, 20; Titus 3:5, 6). not many days from now. God’s promise was fulfilled just 10 days later.
1:6 restore the kingdom to Israel. The apostles still believed the earthly form of the kingdom of Messiah would soon be re-established (cf. Luke 19:11; 24:21). They also knew that Ezek. 36 and Joel 2 connected the coming of the kingdom with the outpouring of the Spirit whom Jesus had promised.
1:8 The apostles’ mission of spreading the gospel was the major reason the Holy Spirit empowered them.receive power. The apostles had already experienced the Holy Spirit’s saving, guiding, teaching, and miracle-working power. Soon they would receive His indwelling presence and a new dimension of power for witness (see notes on 2:4; 1 Cor. 6:19, 20; Eph. 3:16, 20). witnesses.
1:9 taken up. See note on v. 2. God the Father took Jesus, in His resurrection body, from this world to His rightful place at the Father’s right hand (Luke 24:51; cf. 2:33; John 17:1–6). a cloud. A visible reminder that God’s glory was present as the apostles watched the ascension. For some of them, this was not the first time they had witnessed divine glory (Mark 9:26);
1:10 two men…in white apparel. Two angels in the form of men (cf. Gen. 18:2; Josh. 5:13–15; Mark 16:5).
1:11 Men of Galilee. All the apostles were from Galilee except for Judas, who had killed himself by this time (cf. v. 18). in like manner. Christ one day will return to earth (to the Mt. of Olives), in the same way He ascended (with clouds), to set up His kingdom (cf. Dan. 7:13; Zech. 14:4; Matt. 24:30; 26:64; Rev. 1:7; 14:14).
1:13 upper room. Where the Last Supper may have been celebrated (Mark 14:15) and where Jesus had appeared to the apostles after His resurrection.
1:14 continued…in prayer. The pattern of praying in the name of Jesus started at this time (cf. John 14:13, 14). with the women. Doubtless they included Mary Magdalene, Mary the wife of Clopas, the sisters Mary and Martha, and Salome. Some of the apostles’ wives also may have been present (cf. 1 Cor. 9:5). Mary the mother of Jesus
1:15 in those days. Some unspecified time during the believers’ 10 days of prayer and fellowship between the ascension and Pentecost. Peter. See note on Matt. 10:2. The acknowledged leader of the apostles took charge.

Acts 2:1-11 NASB 1977

The Day of Pentecost

1And when the day of Pentecost had come, they were all together in one place. 2And suddenly there came from heaven a noise like a violent, rushing wind, and it filled the whole house where they were sitting. 3And there appeared to them tongues as of fire distributing themselves, and they rested on each one of them. 4And they were all filled with the Holy Spirit and began to speak with other tongues, as the Spirit was giving them utterance.

5Now there were Jews living in Jerusalem, devout men, from every nation under heaven. 6And when this sound occurred, the multitude came together, and were bewildered, because they were each one hearing them speak in his own language. 7And they were amazed and marveled, saying, “Why, are not all these who are speaking Galileans? 8“And how is it that we each hear them in our own language to which we were born? 9“Parthians and Medes and Elamites, and residents of Mesopotamia, Judea and Cappadocia, Pontus and Asia, 10Phrygia and Pamphylia, Egypt and the districts of Libya around Cyrene, and visitors from Rome, both Jews and proselytes, 11Cretans and Arabs—we hear them in our own tongues speaking of the mighty deeds of God.”

Notes: MacArthur Study Bible

2:1 Day of Pentecost. “Pentecost” means “fiftieth” and refers to the Feast of Weeks (Ex. 34:22, 23) or Harvest (Lev. 23:16), which was celebrated 50 days after Passover in May/June (Lev. 23:15–22). It was one of 3 annual feasts for which the nation was to come to Jerusalem (see note on Ex. 23:14–19). At Pentecost, an offering of firstfruits was made (Lev. 23:20). The Holy Spirit came on this day as the firstfruits of the believer’s inheritance (cf. 2 Cor. 5:5; Eph. 1:11, 14). Those gathered into the church then were also the firstfruits of the full harvest of all believers to come after. in one place. The upper room mentioned in 1:13.
2:2 a sound…as…mighty wind. Luke’s simile described God’s action of sending the Holy Spirit. Wind is frequently used in Scripture as a picture of the Spirit (cf. Ezek. 37:9, 10; John 3:8)
2:3 The disciples could not comprehend the significance of the Spirit’s arrival without the Lord sovereignly illustrating what was occurring with a visible phenomenon. tongues, as of fire. Just as the sound, like wind, was symbolic, these were not literal flames of fire but supernatural indicators, like fire, that God had sent the Holy Spirit upon each believer. In Scripture, fire often denoted the divine presence (cf. Ex. 3:2–6). God’s use of a fire-like appearance here parallels what He did with the dove when Jesus was baptized (Matt. 3:11; Luke 3:16).
2:4 all. The apostles and the 120. Cf. Joel 2:28–32. filled with the Holy Spirit. In contrast to the baptism with the Spirit, which is the one-time act by which God places believers into His body (see notes on 1 Cor. 12:13), the filling is a repeated reality of Spirit-controlled behavior that God commands believers to maintain (see notes on Eph. 5:18). with other tongues. Known languages (see notes on v. 6; 1 Cor. 14:1–25), not ecstatic utterances. These languages given by the Spirit were a sign of judgment to unbelieving Israel (see notes on 1 Cor. 14:21, 22). They also showed that from then on, God’s people would come from all nations, and marked the transition from Israel to the church.
2:5 Jews, devout men. Hebrew males who made the pilgrimage to Jerusalem. They were expected to celebrate Pentecost (see note on v. 1) in Jerusalem, as part of observing the Jewish religious calendar. See note on Ex. 23:14–19.***** See my comment below.
2:6 this sound. The noise like gusty wind (v. 2), not the sound of the various languages. speak in his own language. As the believers were speaking, each pilgrim in the crowd recognized the language or dialect from his own country.
2:7 Galileans. Inhabitants of the mostly rural area of northern Israel around the Sea of Galilee. Galilean Jews spoke with a distinct regional accent and were considered to be unsophisticated and uneducated by the southern Judean Jews. When Galileans were seen to be speaking so many different languages, the Judean Jews were astonished.
2:9–11 The listing of specific countries and ethnic groups proves again that these utterances were known human languages.
2:9 Parthians. They lived in what is modern Iran. Medes. In Daniel’s time, they ruled with the Persians, but had settled in Parthia. Elamites. They were from the southwestern part of the Parthian Empire. Mesopotamia. This means “between the rivers” (the Tigris and Euphrates). Many Jews still lived there, descendants of those who were in captivity and who never returned to the land of Israel (cf. 2 Chr. 36:22, 23). Judea. All the region once controlled by David and Solomon, including Syria.
2:9, 10 Cappadocia, Pontus and Asia, Phrygia and Pamphylia. All were districts in Asia Minor, in what is now Turkey.
2:10 Egypt. Many Jews lived there, especially in the city of Alexandria. The nation then covered the same general area as modern Egypt. Libya adjoining Cyrene. These districts were W of Egypt, along the North African coast. Rome. The capital of the Empire had a sizeable Jewish population, dating from the second century B.C. proselytes. Gentile converts to Judaism. Jews in Rome were especially active in seeking such converts.
2:11 Cretans. Residents of the island of Crete, off the southern coast of Greece. Arabs. Jews who lived S of Damascus, among the Nabatean Arabs (cf. Gal. 1:17). we hear them speaking.See note on v. 6. wonderful works of God. The Christians were quoting from the OT what God had done for His people (cf. Ex. 15:11; Pss. 40:5; 77:11; 96:3; 107:21). Such praises were often heard in Jerusalem during festival times.

My note: The miracle of Pentecost is explained, as follows.

This Pentecost happened in 33 A.D (Scofield Study Bible). The foundation for the miracle of Pentecost goes back to the year. 1491 B.C.(Exodus 23).

Exodus 23:14-17 NASB 1977

Three National Feasts

14“Three times a year you shall celebrate a feast to Me. 15“You shall observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread; for seven days you are to eat unleavened bread, as I commanded you, at the appointed time in the month Abib, for in it you came out of Egypt. And none shall appear before Me empty-handed. 16“Also you shall observe the Feast of the Harvest of the first fruits of your labors from what you sow in the field; also the Feast of the Ingathering at the end of the year when you gather in the fruit of your labors from the field. 17“Three times a year all your males shall appear before the Lord GOD.

Three times a year, all Jewish males were required go to three specified feasts at a central sanctuary (MacArthur)

Fast forward to the year 722 B.C., when the Jews in the northern kingdom were taken away from their homes to Assyria (2 Kings 17)

2 Kings 17:6 NASB 1977

Israel Captive

6In the ninth year of Hoshea, the king of Assyria captured Samaria and carried Israel away into exile to Assyria, and settled them in Halah and Habor, on the river of Gozan, and in the cities of the Medes.

Fast forward again to the year 586 B.C., when the Jews in the southern kingdom were taken away from their homes to Babylon (2 Kings 25).

2 Kings 24:8-11 NASB 1977

Jerusalem Burned and Plundered

8Now on the seventh day of the fifth month, which was the nineteenth year of King Nebuchadnezzar, king of Babylon, Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard, a servant of the king of Babylon, came to Jerusalem. 9And he burned the house of the LORD, the king’s house, and all the houses of Jerusalem; even every great house he burned with fire. 10So all the army of the Chaldeans who were with the captain of the guard broke down the walls around Jerusalem. 11Then the rest of the people who were left in the city and the deserters who had deserted to the king of Babylon and the rest of the multitude, Nebuzaradan the captain of the guard carried away into exile.

Ancient Jewish History: The Diaspora

http://www.jewishvirtuallibrary.org/the-diaspora
When the Assyrians conquered Israel in 722, the Hebrew inhabitants were scattered all over the Middle East; these early victims of the dispersion disappeared utterly from the pages of history. However, when Nebuchadnezzar deported the Judaeans in 597 and 586 BC, he allowed them to remain in a unified community in Babylon.

From the time of the initial dispersion of the Jews in 722 B.C., until the date of Acts 2, the dispersed Jewish males traveled to Jerusalem each year for the three required feasts (Unleavened Bread, Pentecost/Weeks/Shavuot, Tabernacles/Ingathering). As was documented in Acts 2:1-11, Jews from all over the middle east assembled in Jerusalem. As was also documented in Acts 2:4-11, those Jews, from their dispersed countries, heard those Jewish believers in Christ, who were assembled in the upper room (Acts 2:2) speaking the mighty deeds of God (2:11) in their own languages (2:11). The miracle of Pentecost was the ability of the Jews, who had come from foreign lands, to hear “Galileans,” speaking in the languages of the dispersed Jews, in their “own dispersed tongues.” The situation was much like that of the United Nations of today. Each speaker delivers a message that is understood in the language of each delegate, of each delegate’s home nation. The “tongues” of Acts 2 relates to languages, which is not the context of spiritual gifts that we find in Romans 12:6 and 1 Corinthians 12-14.

What Is Shavuot?

Sunset May 30, 2017 – Nightfall June 1, 2017 Jewish Year 5778:

http://www.jewfaq.org/holidayc.htm
Shavu’ot, the Festival of Weeks, is the second of the three major festivals with both historical and agricultural significance (the other two are Passover and Sukkot). The period from Passover to Shavu’ot is a time of great anticipation. We count each of the days from the second day of Passover to the day before Shavu’ot, 49 days or 7 full weeks,

Deuteronomy 16:9-12 NASB 1977

The Feast of Weeks

9“You shall count seven weeks for yourself; you shall begin to count seven weeks from the time you begin to put the sickle to the standing grain. 10“Then you shall celebrate the Feast of Weeks to the LORD your God with a tribute of a freewill offering of your hand, which you shall give just as the LORD your God blesses you; 11and you shall rejoice before the LORD your God, you and your son and your daughter and your male and female servants and the Levite who is in your town, and the stranger and the orphan and the widow who are in your midst, in the place where the LORD your God chooses to establish His name.12“And you shall remember that you were a slave in Egypt, and you shall be careful to observe these statutes.

Study Notes: MacArthur Study Bible

16:10–12 the Feast of Weeks. Seven weeks later this second feast was celebrated. It was also called the “Feast of Harvest” (Ex. 23:16) or the “day of firstfruits” (Lev. 23:9–22; Num. 28:26–31) and later came to be known as “Pentecost” (Acts 2:1). With the grain harvest completed, this one-day festival was a time of rejoicing. The outpouring of the Holy Spirit, 50 days after the death of Christ at the Passover, was on Pentecost and gives special meaning to that day for Christians (cf. Joel 2:28–32; Acts 2:14–18).

Christ Fulfills Israel’s Feasts

The Feasts (Lev. 23) Christ’s Fulfillment
Passover (March/April) Death of Christ (1 Cor. 5:7)
Unleavened Bread (March/April) Sinlessness of Christ (1 Cor. 5:8) *See below notes on three national feasts
Firstfruits (March/April) Resurrection of Christ (1 Cor. 15:23)
Pentecost (May/June) Outpouring of Spirit of Christ (Acts 1:5; 2:4) * See below notes on three national feasts.
Trumpets (Sept./Oct.) Israel’s Regathering by Christ (Matt. 24:31)
Atonement (Sept./Oct.) Substitutionary Sacrifice by Christ (Rom. 11:26)
Tabernacles (Sept./Oct.) Rest and Reunion with Christ (Zech. 14:16-19) * See below notes on three national feasts.
*The three major feasts for which all males of Israel were required to travel to the temple in Jerusalem (Ex. 23:14-19).

Exodus 23:14-17 NASB 1977

Three National Feasts

14“Three times a year you shall celebrate a feast to Me. 15“You shall observe the Feast of Unleavened Bread; for seven days you are to eat unleavened bread, as I commanded you, at the appointed time in the month Abib, for in it you came out of Egypt. And none shall appear before Me empty-handed. 16“Also you shall observe the Feast of the Harvest of the first fruits of your labors from what you sow in the field; also the Feast of the Ingathering at the end of the year when you gather in the fruit of your labors from the field. 17“Three times a year all your males shall appear before the Lord GOD.

Study Notes: MacArthur Study Bible

23:14–19 Requiring all males to be present for 3 specified feasts at a central sanctuary would have had a socially and religiously uniting effect on the nation. The men must trust the Lord to protect their landholdings while on pilgrimage to the tabernacle (cf. 34:23, 24). All 3 feasts were joyful occasions, being a commemoration of the Exodus (the Feast of Unleavened Bread), an expression of gratitude to God for all the grain He had provided (the Feast of Harvest), and a thanksgiving for the final harvest (the Feast of Ingathering). Alternative names appear in the biblical record for the second and third feasts: the Feast of Weeks (34:22) or Firstfruits (34:22; Acts 2:1), and the Feast of Tabernacles or Booths (Lev. 23:33–36). For additional discussions, see, Lev. 23:1—24:9; Num. 28, 29; Deut. 16.

Shavu’ot – The Festival Of Weeks

http://www.jewfaq.org/holidayc.htm
Shavu’ot
Shavu’ot (in Hebrew)

Level: Basic
Significance: Remembers the giving of the Torah; also a harvest festival
Observances: Studying Torah
Length: 2 days (Some: 1 day)
Customs: Eating dairy foods
You shall count for yourselves — from the day after the Shabbat, from the day when you bring the Omer of the waving — seven Shabbats, they shall be complete. Until the day after the seventh sabbath you shall count, fifty days… You shall convoke on this very day — there shall be a holy convocation for yourselves — you shall do no laborious work; it is an eternal decree in your dwelling places for your generations. -Leviticus 21:15-16, 21

(The following comments on Shavuot are gleaned from the article that is contained in the link.)

Shavu’ot, the Festival of Weeks, is the second of the three major festivals with both historical and agricultural significance (the other two are Passover and Sukkot). Agriculturally, it commemorates the time when the first fruits were harvested and brought to the Temple, and is known as Hag ha-Bikkurim (the Festival of the First Fruits). Historically, it celebrates the giving of the Torah at Mount Sinai, and is also known as Hag Matan Torateinu (the Festival of the Giving of Our Torah).
The period from Passover to Shavu’ot is a time of great anticipation. We count each of the days from the second day of Passover to the day before Shavu’ot, 49 days or 7 full weeks, hence the name of the festival. The counting reminds us of the important connection between Passover and Shavu’ot: Passover freed us physically from bondage, but the giving of the Torah on Shavu’ot redeemed us spiritually from our bondage to idolatry and immorality. Shavu’ot is also known as Pentecost, because it falls on the 50th day..
It is noteworthy that the holiday is called the time of the giving of the Torah,
Shavu’ot is not tied to a particular calendar date, but to a counting from Passover. Because the length of the months used to be variable, determined by observation, and there are two new moons between Passover and Shavu’ot, Shavu’ot could occur on the 5th or 6th of Sivan. However, now that we have a mathematically determined calendar, and the months between Passover and Shavu’ot do not change length on the mathematical calendar, Shavu’ot is always on the 6th of Sivan (the 6th and 7th outside of Israel.

List of Dates

Shavu’ot will occur on the following days of the secular calendar:
Jewish Year 5777: sunset May 30, 2017 – nightfall June 1, 2017
Jewish Year 5778: sunset May 19, 2018 – nightfall May 21, 2018
Jewish Year 5779: sunset June 8, 2019 – nightfall June 10, 2019
Jewish Year 5780: sunset May 28, 2020 – nightfall May 30, 2020
Jewish Year 5781: sunset May 16, 2021 – nightfall May 18, 2021

In order to see other posts that relate to this series, select category “Journey.”

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3 thoughts on “Pentecost And Shavuot – Two Holy Events

  1. Here’s my old post on this ( https://kristiann1.com/2014/06/04/happy-shavuot-pentecost/ )!!

    May our ONE TRUE GOD the FATHER who art in HEAVEN ABOVE BLESS All my Sisters and Brothers in Christ Jesus-Yeshua and Your Families and Friends!!

    Praise Jesus-Yeshua Christ For Today and Everyday, HE is KING of kings and LORD ( ADONAI ) of lords, HE is the ALPHA and OMEGA!! Glory Glory Hallelujah and Maranatha!! Amen-Amein!!

    Love ❤ Always and Shalom ( Peace ) Everyone, YSIC \o/

    Kristi Ann

    Liked by 2 people

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