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John 19:31 New American Standard Bible (NASB)
A few thoughts about Passover and the Sabbath. High Sabbath. John 19:31, Passover occurring on a Sabbath. Today (April 22) at sundown begins the Sabbath and Passover, making the time from sundown on Friday to Sundown on Saturday a High Sabbath. The Feast of Unleavened Bread begins immediately after the 24 hours of Passover, and lasts for 7 days, concluding on Saturday at sundown on April 30. The total time from this evening at sundown until next Saturday at sundown is referred to Passover. See Lev 23:4-8 and Ex 12:1-22.
Care of the Body of Jesus
31 Then the Jews, because it was the day of preparation, so that the bodies would not remain on the cross on the Sabbath (for that Sabbath was a high day), asked Pilate that their legs might be broken, and that they might be taken away.
19:31 Preparation Day. This refers to Friday, the day before or “the preparation” day for the Sabbath. See Introduction: Interpretive Challenges. should not remain on the cross on the Sabbath. The normal Roman practice was to leave crucified men and women on the cross until they died (and this could take days) and then leave their rotting bodies hanging there to be devoured by vultures. The Mosaic law insisted that anyone being impaled (usually after execution) should not remain there overnight (Deut. 21:22, 23). Such a person was under God’s curse, and to leave him exposed would be to desecrate the land in their minds. their legs might be broken. In order to hasten death for certain reasons, soldiers would smash the legs of the victim with an iron mallet. Not only did this action induce shock and additional loss of blood, but it prevented the victim from pushing with his legs to keep breathing (see note on v. 18.), and thus the victim died due to asphyxiation (MacArthur Study Bible Note)
Leviticus 23:1-8 Holman Christian Standard Bible (HCSB)
Holy Days (God speaks to the Israelites about Israelite appointed times. He addresses the Sabbath, and then the Passover and Feast Of Unleavened Bread).
1 The Lord spoke to Moses: 2 “Speak to the Israelites and tell them: These are My appointed times, the times of the Lord that you will proclaim as sacred assemblies.
3 “Work may be done for six days, but on the seventh day there must be a Sabbath of complete rest, a sacred assembly. You are not to do any work; it is a Sabbath to the Lord wherever you live.
4 “These are the Lord’s appointed times, the sacred assemblies you are to proclaim at their appointed times. 5 The Passover to the Lord comes in the first month, at twilight on the fourteenth day of the month. 6 The Festival of Unleavened Bread to the Lord is on the fifteenth day of the same month. For seven days you must eat unleavened bread. 7 On the first day you are to hold a sacred assembly; you are not to do any daily work. 8 You are to present a fire offering to the Lord for seven days. On the seventh day there will be a sacred assembly; you must not do any daily work.”
Leviticus 27:34 Holman Christian Standard Bible (HCSB)
This passage enforces the teaching that the Law was given to the Israelites, and to no other group, or groups, of people.
34 These are the commands the Lord gave Moses for the Israelites on Mount Sinai.
Exodus 16:23-26 Holman Christian Standard Bible (HCSB)
23 He told them, “This is what the Lord has said: ‘Tomorrow is a day of complete rest, a holy Sabbath to the Lord. Bake what you want to bake, and boil what you want to boil, and set aside everything left over to be kept until morning.’”
24 So they set it aside until morning as Moses commanded, and it didn’t smell or have any maggots in it. 25 “Eat it today,” Moses said, “because today is a Sabbath to the Lord. Today you won’t find any in the field. 26 For six days you may gather it, but on the seventh day, the Sabbath, there will be none.”
Note: Holman Christian Standard Bible (Ex 16:23-26): Sabbath is an anglicized form of the Hebrew word, “shabbath,” associated with a verb meaning “cease, stop, rest” (vs 30, 5:5, 31:12-17).
Shabbat is a gift of God to the Jews (Ex 31:12-17)
Exodus 31:12-17 Holman Christian Standard Bible (HCSB)
Observing the Sabbath
12 The Lord said to Moses: 13 “Tell the Israelites: You must observe My Sabbaths, for it is a sign between Me and you throughout your generations, so that you will know that I am Yahweh who sets you apart. 14 Observe the Sabbath, for it is holy to you. Whoever profanes it must be put to death. If anyone does work on it, that person must be cut off from his people. 15 Work may be done for six days, but on the seventh day there must be a Sabbath of complete rest, dedicated to the Lord. Anyone who does work on the Sabbath day must be put to death. 16 The Israelites must observe the Sabbath, celebrating it throughout their generations as a perpetual covenant. 17 It is a sign forever between Me and the Israelites, for in six days the Lord made the heavens and the earth, but on the seventh day He rested and was refreshed.”
Shabbat was given by God to the Jews to Keep and Remember. (Ex 20:8)
Exodus 20:8 Holman Christian Standard Bible (HCSB)
“Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy”
Jews are caretakers of Shabbat. Let non-Jews honor and respect all of that which God has entrusted to the Jews, to include Passover. Let’s consider the Passover, and relate it to the opening video of this discussion.
Exodus 12:1-10 Holman Christian Standard Bible (HCSB)
Instructions for the Passover
12 The Lord said to Moses and Aaron in the land of Egypt: 2 “This month is to be the beginning of months for you; it is the first month of your year. 3 Tell the whole community of Israel that on the tenth day of this month they must each select an animal of the flock according to their fathers’ households, one animal per household. 4 If the household is too small for a whole animal, that person and the neighbor nearest his house are to select one based on the combined number of people; you should apportion the animal according to what each person will eat. 5 You must have an unblemished animal, a year-old male; you may take it from either the sheep or the goats. 6 You are to keep it until the fourteenth day of this month; then the whole assembly of the community of Israel will slaughter the animals at twilight. 7 They must take some of the blood and put it on the two doorposts and the lintel of the houses where they eat them. 8 They are to eat the meat that night; they should eat it, roasted over the fire along with unleavened bread and bitter herbs. 9 Do not eat any of it raw or cooked in boiling water, but only roasted over fire—its head as well as its legs and inner organs. 10 Do not let any of it remain until morning; you must burn up any part of it that does remain before morning.
Notice that “every household” had to sacrifice a lamb; they had to keep the innocent lamb in their home from the tenth through fourteenth days. Consider how the families, especially the children, may have become attached to “the innocent lamb;” then it was sacrificed. How tragic that sacrifice may have been…especially to the children! But, why, may you ask, did every family have to “sacrifice an innocent lamb?” Let’s consider sin, and its seriousness. Let’s consider something that we call collateral sin, which is “spreading sin.” A new testament scripture explains why “every household” needed the “blood of the lamb” to protect them from the punishment of God. Let’s consider Romans 3:23.
Romans 3:23 Holman Christian Standard Bible (HCSB)
23 For all have sinned and fall short of the glory of God.
But, how does vs 23 relate to Jesus and Passover?
1 Corinthians 5:7 Holman Christian Standard Bible (HCSB)
7 Clean out the old yeast so that you may be a new batch. You are indeed unleavened, for Christ our Passover has been sacrificed.
5:7 Christ, our Passover. Just as unleavened bread symbolized being freed from Egypt by the Passover (Ex. 12:15–17), so the church is to be unleavened, since it has been separated from the dominion of sin and death by the perfect Passover Lamb, the Lord Jesus Christ. The church is, therefore, to remove everything sinful in order to be separate from the old life, including the influence of sinful church members. (MacArthur Study Bible Note)
Romans 5:8 Holman Christian Standard Bible (HCSB)
“God demonstrates His own love toward us, in that while we were yet sinners, Christ died for us.”
Knowing that we could do nothing for ourselves, the Lord Jesus Christ died on the Cross to declare us no longer guilty of our sin. He chose to forgive us and save us from the penalty of our transgressions (Rom. 6:23). Jesus did not die only for nice or good people. He gave His sinless life for everyone. And He did this because of His amazing love for us. (Charles Stanley Study Note)
Romans 6:23 Holman Christian Standard Bible (HCSB)
23 For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life in Christ Jesus our Lord.
6:23 This verse describes two inexorable absolutes: 1) spiritual death is the paycheck for every man’s slavery to sin; and 2) eternal life is a free gift God gives undeserving sinners who believe in His Son (cf. Eph. 2:8, 9). (MacArthur Study Bible Note).
Romans 10:13 Holman Christian Standard Bible (HCSB)
13 For everyone who calls on the name of the Lord will be saved.
10:13 Paul quoted Joel (2:32) to further emphasize that salvation is available for people of all nations and races. calls on the name. This familiar OT expression (e.g., Pss. 79:5, 6; 105:1;116:4, 5) does not refer to some desperate cry to just any deity but to the one true God as He has revealed Himself—a revelation which now includes recognition of Jesus as Lord (v. 9) and of the One who raised up Jesus from the dead (v. 9). (MacArthur Study Bible Note)
10:13 — “Whoever will call on the name of the Lord will be saved.”
Jesus is our ultimate, final, and complete sacrifice, and salvation is open to every person, regardless of who they are or what they have done. That is why the promise is whoever puts his faith in Christ will be saved and will receive eternal life. It is absolutely guaranteed to any person who receives His grace—He will never reject them. (Charles Stanley Note)
Consider The Lamb Of God
John 1:29 Holman Christian Standard Bible (HCSB)
The Lamb of God
29 The next day John saw Jesus coming toward him and said, “Here is the Lamb of God, who takes away the sin of the world!
Just as the Passover Lamb of Exodus 12 was “oh so innocent,” consider the innocence of Jesus, who is our Passover Lamb,
Consider God’s plan for all of us who have been affected by the reality of personal sin and “collateral sin.”
Yes! Jesus was/is our Passover Lamb!