AG-03 The Teaching Of The Passover – Draft

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The Teaching Of The Passover – Draft

The following draft can be used as a teaching tool for a Sabbabth/Shabbat teaching and meal. A completed post will be published and distributed prior to the beginning of Passover and Feast of Unleavened Bread, which begins on Friday, April 22, at Sundown. The Feast of Passover and Unleavened Bread will continue until the following Saturday, April 30, at sundown. The teaching of the Passover of the Jews is important for Christians to understand. The videos and information on the Passover Seder are presented from a Jewish point of understanding. It is important for Christians to understand such a mindset in order for them to engage Jews in conversation about matters of God’s Holy Word. As a pastor, it is also important for me to show the Messianic teaching in God’s Word. In the Seder, Yeshua is seen. Remember to pray for God’s chosen people, who are the Jews, per Psalm 122:6. There are colored illustrations and pictures that will not be visible in this post. If anyone would like to see the worksheet that has those missing items, please let me know and I can email them.


Greetings, “Friends”

male–chaver; female — chaverah; friends–chaverim

pronounced: hah vare.. .hah vare ah. ..hah vare eem

Silent “c.” sounds like “ha;” as in “ha ha ha ha ha”

Thanks to Teresa, a ministry partner in Washington State

Passover And Resurrection Sunday (Compare and Contrast)

The Passover, The Sabbath, and The Law are special in relationship between God and the Jews. Non-Jews benefit from respecting those, and other, “God-Jew” intimacies of relationship. This post relates to the Passover, and how it relates to the Jews being delivered from the oppressive Leader of Egypt.

Joseph sold into slavery (1897 B.C.)
Beginning of Jewish Slavery in Egypt (1875 B.C.)
Deliverance of Jews from Egypt (1445 B.C.)

Exodus 12:40-42 New Living Translation (NLT) (Israel in Egypt 430 years) (The Passover to be kept by the Jews)

40 The people of Israel had lived in Egypt for 430 years. 41 In fact, it was on the last day of the 430th year that all the Lord’s forces left the land. 42 On this night the Lord kept his promise to bring his people out of the land of Egypt. So this night belongs to him, and it must be commemorated every year by all the Israelites, from generation to generation.

12:40, 41 four hundred and thirty years. Abraham had been told that his descendants would be aliens mistreated in a foreign land for 400 years, using a figure rounded to hundreds (Gen. 15:13). (Mac Arthur Study Bible Note)

Genesis 15:13 New Living Translation (NLT) (Abraham was told by God of Israel being oppressed in Egypt)

13 Then the Lord said to Abram, “You can be sure that your descendants will be strangers in a foreign land, where they will be oppressed as slaves for 400 years.

Genesis 50:24 New Living Translation (NLT) (Joseph tells his brothers that God will take them out of Egypt)

24 “Soon I will die,” Joseph told his brothers, “but God will surely come to help you and lead you out of this land of Egypt. He will bring you back to the land he solemnly promised to give to Abraham, to Isaac, and to Jacob.”

The Passover Deals With The Jews’ Being Delivered From Israel By God.

The Path To The Passover

Exodus 1:1-22 – Harsh Labor – Death of Jewish Infants (Read the key verses below)

11 So they appointed taskmasters over them to afflict them with hard labor. And they built for Pharaoh storage cities, Pithom and Rameses. 12 But the more they afflicted them, the more they multiplied and the more they spread out, so that they were in dread of the sons of Israel. 13 The Egyptians compelled the sons of Israel to labor rigorously; 14 and they made their lives bitter with hard labor in mortar and bricks and at all kinds of labor in the field, all their labors which they rigorously imposed on them.
22 Then Pharaoh commanded all his people, saying, “Every son who is born you are to cast into the Nile, and every daughter you are to keep alive.” (The babies became crocodile food. Aborted babies of today have similar abominable things to happen to them and their body parts. Later, when the Egyptian army was pursuing the Jews across the dried up Red Sea; those who were caught in the middle when the water returned became fish food – how ironic!)

Consider our government of today (abortion)

The “church” (?) seems to oppose the leader of Egypt for the killing of little babies. But, the liberal churches of today (red and yellow, black and white) show no opposition to our leader, nor to any leaders of his party for not protecting the lives of unborn babies…even allowing seven, eight, and nine pound babies to be murdered in their mothers wombs, up to the point of birth… Neither do those same, who are “church in name only,” oppose our leader, for using the force of government to promote the killing of unborn babies. This same indictment relates to any other members of our leader’s party who are seeking to replace him. It also applies to other members of our leader’s party who are silent on the matter. It also applies to people who have continued to vote for our leader and for his party, with the knowledge of that party having a party platform which endorses abortion on demand. Our leader, members of his party, and those who continue to vote for such pro-abortion candidates, are…”not born again…awaiting their judgment of Revelation 20:15″ (“if anyone’s name was not found written in the book of life, they were thrown into the lake of fire”). For the pastors who support such pro-death candidates, scripture has a stern warning: “Not many of you should become teachers, my fellow believers, because you know that we who teach will be judged more strictly. “(James 3:1) Our nation’s leader, the other leaders of his party, and those who continue to vote for such “pro-death” candidates, may think that they can “fool our voters, and even fool themselves; but, they can not fool God!” Revelation 20:15 is serious! Let’s make this personal: “If a pastor does not hold to God’s Word against the killing of little babies, that pastor should be fired! If you attend a church that has such an apostate pastor, and if that apostate pastor has not been fired, then you should leave that congregation and find one that is not a church of apostasy. After all, you and your children will continue to be subject to a leader who has not been born again, one who is an apostate leader, one who will continue to lead a congregation to be apostate followers.” Let me say something very clearly. There is no way that the Spirit of God dwells within the spirit of a person who continues to vote for candidates who promote abortion on demand. Neither is there any possible way that a person’s spirit can dwell within the Spirit of God if that person continues to vote for candidates who promote abortion on demand. Such a person has not been born again! Remember the words of John 3:3, “No one can see the Kingdom of God unless they are born again.”

Exodus 5:6-13 – Cruel labor techniques (Read)

God’s Plagues On Egypt In Exodus

Water turned to blood (7:14-25); Frogs cover the land (8:1-15); Gnats (8:16-19); Swarms of flies (8:20-22); Diseased livestock (9:1-7); Boils (9:8-12); Hail and fire (9:13-35); Locusts (10:1-20); Darkness (10:21-29); Death of firstborn (11:1-12:36)

The Exodus of Israel from Egypt and the Passover.

God Commands The Sacrifice Of The Passover Lamb: Exodus 12:1-11 (Read)

Redemption: By Blood: Exodus 12:12-13 (Read)

The Passover: A Memorial Of Redemption: Exodus 12:14-28 (Read)

The Feasts Of The Lord: The Passover: Christ Our Redeemer: Leviticus 23:4-5. Fulfilled in death of Christ: 2 Cor 5:7. (Read)

The Feasts Of The Lord: Unleavened Bread: Leviticus 23:6-8. Fulfilled in the sinlesssness of Christ: 1 Cor 5:8. (Read)

The three major feasts for which all males of Israel were required to travel to the temple in Jerusalem (Ex 23:14-17) 1. Unleavened Bread. 2. Pentecost. 3. Tabernacles. (Leviticus 23 MacArthur Study Bible Note,Jewish Feasts).

The Last Passover Of Jesus With His Disciples:

“Maundy Thursday” The word Maundy is derived from the Latin word for “command.” The “Maundy” in “Maundy Thursday” refers to the command that Jesus gave to the disciples at the Passover meal, that they should love and serve one another.

The Preparation Of The Passover Meal: (Read All)

Matthew 26:17-19: Consider the task and accomplishment of the preparation of the Passover meal. Mark 14:12-16: Consider the place for the Providence and place of the Passover meal. Luke 22:7-13: Consider the names of the disciples who prepared the Passover meal.

The Humility Of Jesus At The Passover Meal: (Read)

John 13:1-5: Consider the humility of Jesus washing the feet of the disciples, to include Judas. Consider the cultural aspect of washing someone’s feet.

The Placement Of The Disciples At The Passover Meal: The special relationship between Jesus and John. The physical closeness of Jesus and John. Others may not have heard the conversation of Jesus and John. John 13:23 & 25 (Read)

Passover Seder Plate Description – Refer to plate and brochure.

The Passover Meal

Matthew 26:20-30. It was a meal with wine. It was not an “itsy bitsy wafer” and an “itsy bitsy sippy cup.” (Read)

What is a Passover Seder?

What happens at a Passover Seder meal?

A Passover seder is a service held at home as part of the Passover celebration. It is always observed on the first night of Passover, and in many homes on the second night as well. Participants use a book called a haggadah to lead the service, which consists of storytelling, a seder meal, and concluding prayers and songs.

Consider the Passover Seder Of Today. (The following information explains the procedure that Jews take to observe the Passover)


The word haggadah (הַגָּדָה) comes from a Hebrew word meaning “tale” or “parable,” and it contains a sort of outline or choreography for the seder. The word seder (סֵדֶר) literally means “order” in Hebrew, and there’s a very specific “order” to the seder service and meal

Kiddush Cup

Drinking the ritual wine.

Shabbat and Jewish holiday meals begin with a blessing over a cup of wine. Many families have a special glass or goblet specifically for the purpose, often an heirloom that has been passed down through the generations, but any cup can function as a Kiddush cup if necessary. Either wine or grape juice may be used for this blessing, and some families stand for Kiddush, while others sit

The Seder Plate

The placement and symbolism of the items on the seder plate.

The Passover Haggadah demands that each person see him or herself as having personally come forth out of Egypt. Accordingly, the seder is one of the most sensory-heavy rituals of the Jewish year. During the seder, we don’t just tell the story of the Exodus, we see, smell, feel, and taste liberation.

Many of the elements of this sensory experience appear on the seder plate (k’arah), which serves as the centerpiece of the seder table. The seder plate traditionally holds five or six items, each of which symbolizes a part (or multiple parts) of the Passover story.

The Seder Plate and Its Symbolism

There are a number of symbols that occur throughout the seder, but perhaps the focal point of the whole event is the seder plate. It contains:

a roasted shankbone, symbolizing the Pesach sacrifice in the Temple,
a roasted egg symbolizing either the spring season or mourning (for the destruction of Jerusalem),
maror (bitter herbs) to represent the bitter experience of the Hebrew slaves,
haroset (a mixture of apples, nuts, raisins, spices, wine) symbolizing the mortar the Hebrew slaves used to build for the Egyptians,
karpas (parsley, celery, or another green vegetable) symbolizing the green of spring.
The table must also have three pieces of matzah, each piece used for a different purpose, usually held in a special pouch made to be used during the seder.

The Passover Haggadah demands that each person see him or herself as having personally come forth out of Egypt. Accordingly, the seder is one of the most sensory-heavy rituals of the Jewish year. During the seder, we don’t just tell the story of the Exodus, we see, smell, feel, and taste liberation.
Many of the elements of this sensory experience appear on the seder plate (k’arah), which serves as the centerpiece of the seder table. The seder plate traditionally holds five or six items, each of which symbolizes a part (or multiple parts) of the Passover story.

Karpas (a green vegetable, most often parsley)

parsleyKarpas represents the initial flourishing of the Israelites during the first years in Egypt. At the end of the biblical book of Genesis, Joseph moves his family to Egypt, where he becomes the second-in-command to Pharaoh. Protected by Joseph’s exalted status, the family lives safely for several generations and proliferate greatly, becoming a great nation. The size of this growing population frightens the new Pharaoh, who enslaves the Israelites, lest they make war on Egypt. Even under slave conditions, the Israelites continue to reproduce, and Pharaoh eventually decrees that all baby boys be killed. In the course of the seder, we dip the karpas in salt water (Ashkenazi custom) or vinegar (Sephardi custom) in order to taste both the hope of new birth and the tears that the Israelite slaves shed over their condition.

Karpas also symbolizes the new spring. One of the names for Passover is Hag Ha-Aviv or the “holiday of spring.” Right around Passover the first buds emerge, and we look forward to the warmth and sense of possibility that accompany the beginning of spring. Some Ashkenazi Jews use a potato for karpas, as green vegetables were not readily available in Eastern Europe.

Haroset (Sweet Fruit Paste Symbolizing Mortar)

This mix of fruits, wine or honey, and nuts symbolizes the mortar that the Israelite slaves used to construct buildings for Pharaoh. The name itself comes from the Hebrew word cheresor clay. Ashkenazi Jews generally include apples in haroset, a nod to the midrashic tradition that the Israelite women would go into the fields and seduce their husbands under the apple trees, in defiance of the Egyptian attempts to prevent reproduction by separating men and women.

Sephardic recipes for haroset allude to this fertility symbolism by including fruits, such as dates and figs, mentioned in Song of Songs, the biblical book that is most infused with images of love and sexuality.

Maror (Bitter Herb, Often Horseradish)

This bitter herb allows us to taste the bitterness of slavery. Today, most Jews use horseradish asmaror. Originally, though, maror was probably a bitter lettuce, such as romaine, or a root, such as chicory. Like life in Egypt, these lettuces and roots taste sweet when one first bites into them, but then become bitter as one eats more. We dip maror into haroset in order to associate the bitterness of slavery with the work that caused so much of this bitterness.

Hazeret (Second Bitter Herb, Often Romaine)

A second bitter herb, used in korech or the Hillel sandwich, which consists of matzah and bitter herbs (some add haroset as well). Many Jews use horseradish for maror and romaine lettuce or another bitter green for hazeret. Others use the same vegetable for both parts of the seder, and do not include hazeret on the seder plate at all.

Z’roa (Shankbone)

A roasted lamb shank bone that symbolizes the lamb that Jews sacrificed as the special Passover offering when the Temple stood in Jerusalem. The z’roa does not play an active role in the seder, but serves as a visual reminder of the sacrifice that the Israelites offered immediately before leaving Egypt and that Jews continued to offer until the destruction of the Temple. Vegetarians often substitute a roasted beet, both because the red of the beet resembles the blood of the sacrifice and because the Talmud mentions beets as one of the vegetables sometimes dipped during the seder.

Beitzah (Egg)

A roasted or hard-boiled egg that symbolizes the hagigah sacrifice, which would be offered on every holiday (including Passover) when the Temple stood. The roundness of the egg also represents the cycle of life — even in the most painful of times, there is always hope for a new beginning.


There are a few traditions regarding the arrangement of items on the seder plate. Most commonly, the maror is placed in the middle of the plate. The hazeret is at the six o’clock position followed by, moving clockwise, karpas (seven o’clock), beitzah (11 o’clock), z’roa (one o’clock), and haroset (five o’clock).

On the Table

In addition to the items on the seder plate, the seder table should also have three pieces of matzahwrapped or covered in a cloth and a container of salt water or vinegar in which to dip the karpas. Some seder plates have a compartment for matzah underneath, or include space for salt water among the other symbols. In most cases, though, matzah and salt water or vinegar sit near, but not on, the seder plate.

One way to encourage participation in the seder is to ask each guest to bring one item that, for him or her, represents liberation. Participants might bring family heirlooms that remind them of their family’s immigration story, newspaper stories about current liberation struggles, or other symbolic objects. Each guest should place this item near the seder plate and, at an appropriate time in the seder, explain its significance.

Must-Know Passover Terms

Key words and phrases for Passover.

Afikoman—From a Greek word meaning “dessert.” A piece of matzah that is hidden during the course of the seder, found after dinner, and eaten as dessert at the end of the seder meal.
Arba Kosot — Hebrew for “four cups.” In this case, it refers to the four cups of wine drunk at the Passover seder.
Barekh— The 12th step of the Passover seder, in which birkat hamazon, the grace after meals is said.
Beitzah — Hebrew for “egg.” A roasted or hard-boiled egg is placed on the seder plate to symbolize rebirth.
Chad Gadya —Hebrew for “one goat,” this is the last of the songs sung at the conclusion of the seder and tells the story of the little goat a father bought for a pittance. To hear the song clickhere and for lyrics click here.
Chag Ha Aviv — Hebrew for “The Spring Holiday.” One of the alternate names for Passover.
Dayenu — Hebrew for “enough for us,” this is the name of a song sung at the Passover seder that tells of all the miracles God performed for the Israelites. Listen to it and see the transliteration in this video below.
Gebrochts — Yiddish for “broken,” this refers to matzah that has absorbed liquid. It is customary among some Orthodox Ashkenazi Jews to avoid gebrochts as an extra stringency on Passover.
Haggadah — Hebrew for “telling” or “recounting.” A Haggadah is a book that is used to tell the story of the Exodus at the seder. There are many versions available ranging from very traditional to nontraditional, and you can also make your own.
Hallel — The 13th step of the Passover seder, in which psalms of praise are sung.
Hametz — Bread or any food that has been leavened or contains a leavening agent, hametz is prohibited on Passover.
Haroset — A sweet mixture of nuts, wine, and apples on the seder plate that symbolizes the mortar used by slaves in Egypt.
Hol HaMoed — The intermediate days of the holiday, between the first two days of holiday, and the last two days of holiday.
Kaddesh — The first step of the Passover seder, in which a blessing over a glass is recited.
Karpas — The third step of the Passover seder, in which a piece of greenery such as parsley is dipped into salt water and then eaten.
Kitniyot — Hebrew for legumes, the term here also includes corn and rice. These items were prohibited for use on Passover by some Ashkenazic rabbis in the medieval period, but many Sephardic Jews (and increasingly Conservative Jews) do allow them on Passover.
Korekh — The ninth step in the Passover seder, in which bitter herbs are eaten together with a piece of matzah.
Maggid — The fifth and most substantial step of the Passover seder, in which the story of the Exodus is recounted.
Maror — Bitter herbs. The eighth step in the Passover seder, in which the herbs (usually horseradish), symbolizing the bitterness of life under Egyptian rule, are eaten.
Matzah — Unleavened bread. According to the Bible the Israelites ate matzah right before they left Egypt. Today matzah is eaten during Passover to commemorate the Exodus from Egypt.
Motzi Matzah — The seventh step in the Passover seder, in which a piece of matzah is eaten.
Nirtzah — The 14th and final step of the Passover seder, in which the night is concluded by saying “Next year in Jerusalem.”
Pesach —Hebrew for “pass over.” Cooked meat that, according to the Bible, was eaten by the Israelites just before they left Egypt.
Rahtza — The sixth step of the Passover seder, in which the hands are washed for a second time, and a blessing is recited.
Seder — Hebrew for “order.” The Passover ritual where family and friends gather on the first one or two nights of Passover to retell the story of the Exodus. The story is told in a particular order, with specific rituals.
Shir Hashirim — The Song of Songs, the text read in synagogue during the Shabbat of Passover.
Shulhan Orekh— The 10th step in the Passover seder, in which the meal is served. Pass thematzah balls!
Tzafun — The 11th step of the Passover seder, in which the afikoman is found and eaten as dessert.
Urchatz — The second step of the Passover seder, in which the hands are washed but no blessing is recited.
Yahatz — The fourth step of the Passover seder in which a piece of matzah is broken in half.
Zeroa — Shank bone. The bone is placed on the seder plate and recalls the blood on the doorposts and the terror and the anticipation of the night of the plague of the first born.

GOD’S CHOOSING OF ISRAEL (The following information shows that The Passover, the giving of The Sabbath, and the giving of The Law, relate to God and the Jews, only. When the Passover, The Sabbath and The Law were given, only the Jews were present. No other descendants of Abraham or Isaac were recipients of any of these three important gifts of God; which is important for us to understand. If only the Jews were present when these “big three” gifts of God were given, no other group of people would have known anything about the specifics of those gifts. Only, in time, did other groups of people learn of these three gifts. But, only the Jews were the “binding recipients” of these gifts.)

Joshua 24:1-7 New American Standard Bible (NASB)

Joshua Reviews Israel’s History

1 Then Joshua gathered all the tribes of Israel to Shechem, and called for the elders of Israel and for their heads and their judges and their officers; and they presented themselves before God. 2 Joshua said to all the people, “Thus says the Lord, the God of Israel, ‘From ancient times your fathers lived beyond the River, namely, Terah, the father of Abraham and the father of Nahor, and they served other gods. 3 Then I took your father Abraham from beyond the River, and led him through all the land of Canaan, and multiplied his descendants and gave him Isaac. 4 To Isaac I gave Jacob and Esau, and to Esau I gave Mount Seir to possess it; but Jacob and his sons went down to Egypt. 5 Then I sent Moses and Aaron, and I plagued Egypt by what I did in its midst; and afterward I brought you out. 6 I brought your fathers out of Egypt, and you came to the sea; and Egypt pursued your fathers with chariots and horsemen to the Red Sea. 7 But when they cried out to the Lord, He put darkness between you and the Egyptians, and brought the sea upon them and covered them; and your own eyes saw what I did in Egypt. And you lived in the wilderness for a long time.

ABRAHAM Genesis 12:1-3; 25:8 (Death)
ISAAC Genesis 17:19-21; 26:1-5
JACOB Genesis 28:13-15

ABRAHAM (SARAH) ISAAC and Esau; AND JACOB (ISRAEL) – Genesis 37-50; Exodus (all through it)

ISAAC – Genesis 17-35:29 (Death)
Esau – Genesis 25 – 36:9 (No mention of his death)
Edomites – Genesis 36:9 – 36:43
Edom: Exodus 15:14-16 (Edom located on the eastern border of the Jordan River.
JACOB – Genesis 25 – 49:33 (Death) – Genesis 50:24 (Promised land to descendants of Abraham, Isaac, Jacob). Exodus 1:1 – 1:5 (Descendants of Jacob entered Egypt; descendants of Ishmael and Midian not in Egypt). Exodus 3:15-16 (God told Moses, “speak to the children of Israel. Exodus 6:6, God told Moses that He would deliver the Israelites from Egypt. Exodus 19-29, The Law given to Israel, not to Ishmael or Midian. Exodus 31:17, the law given as a sign between God and Israel and for Israel to keep. Exodus 12-13 – Feasts of Passover and Unleavened established for Israel. Exodus 14: God delivered Israel from Egypt through the Red Sea. Joshua 3 (God leads the Israelites across the Jordan River: MIRACLE). No Ishmaelites or Midianites.


ISHMAEL – Genesis 16-25:17 (Death) 25:18-19 Descendants settled outside of Egypt.

Ishmaelites: Genesis 37:25-36; 39:1-3; Judges 8:24

ABRAHAM (KETURAH) AND MIDIAN – Six sons. Midian most mentioned.

Midian: Genesis 25:1-3 (Midian) 25:4 Descendants; 25:5 (Abraham gave all that he had to Isaac). Unknown details of death.

Midianites: Genesis 37:36; Numbers 25:17; 31:1-7; Judges 6:1


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